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tv   Washington This Week  CSPAN  June 1, 2013 10:00am-2:01pm EDT

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line. is there mooks which education phrase for these on- line courses. starting to see a lot of colleges tiptoe into this swimming pool, if you will there is not a whole lot of evidence about how it will shape the future of higher education but one thing is certain, it will provide less cost to two students. cqt:lauren smith rights for roll call. thank you. on our program to more, we're going to feature two guests to talk about president obama's or recent speech at morehouse college. then we will have a discussion about america's energy with michael levy of the council of foreign relations. we'll take a look at the papers
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and take your phone calls as well on "washington nasa of others talk about the program. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] and ben bernanke. >> nasa officials speak of the future of the space program and efforts.
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this is about one hour. >> good morning again. moreully i and sounding mille coherent now that i've had time to slow down. our second session is an exciting one. we are discussing human robotic recursive missions. precursor missions. speciald to do a nova to cover the boston bombing. we apologize to everybody here. i ensure dan will do a fabulous job. i'm really excited about this panel. i will leave it to you to introduce her panelist. spicy but very much.
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-- thank you very much. >> i am pleased to be here today to do the human robotics precursor discussion. william. we have director of the human exploration operation mission directory. to my rate we have john. -- to my right we have john. five-time shuttle astronauts. .his is your science guy to my left is mike. he is direct your of the space technology mission directory. between the three of them we have them working on a retrieval mission that was talked about. this is since last year's budget
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request where they announced a similar budget request. they will work together and they will bring you something that satisfies objectives from all the parts of nasa. i came up with a list of questions. we decided we would get right into it. we will try to speak for half our allotted time. we want to be plenty of times for questions. we expect plenty of it. i want to start out on the retrieval mission. and is going to go out find a relatively small asteroid. they will bring it back into the region of lunar space where astronauts can go and visit it and poke it and prod it. would you all briefly just take a couple of seconds and explain the particular responsibilities that each of your direct others have for that mission. we have been asked to look
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at some of the technologies. once the object it's been to orbit, we will use over ryan to go out and inspect and potentially return a sample. as this flies up. coming important for us from a technology standpoint and understanding how to operate in the vicinity of the moon. we also get a chance to use lunar gravity. we use this capability. sayt's with the they capabilities. we do not have to modify much.
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for a lot ofially experience in deep space, which i think we will truly need to augment, as he had the distances. >> i think that will be important. ist might not be obvious how the mission can prepare us to go to mars. that is the theme i want to stick with. what is the science interest? asteroids through the years. 1998 we had the responsibility to start identifying asteroids and filled up a catalog of potential hazards that has been growing over time. we are expanding that to be down tofind objects
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the size. it is more broadly about an increased rate of detection. the ground-ng at based program. i could have mentioned the agreement. they are going to be looking at trying to raise private funds. they can help find these objects. that is later in the decade. beyond that, it is part of our larger study of ancient objects of the asteroids. we are building a very ambitious mission. it is going to go out to a 500 meter across android.
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it is going to go down to the surface and bring it back to earth. a lot of the technology we are , that has developed technology that will be applied. . >> i am sorry. >> a hello. >> i think we can hear him. he is a little bit different than what these two fellows do in so far as within human
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exploration. you have some very obvious projects. you are reaching across the aisle in all directions. there are some technologies that nasa wants to particularly develop for the mission. that is your responsibility. would you tell us about the most important ones? >> as you mentioned earlier, the mission director is the newest. in february ofe this year. for those of you who have been in the audience for a long time, you know there have been previous incarnations of standalone technology organizations. great time for a focus on crosscutting technologies. why? we are trying to go beyond and below orbit. to do that we need a number of things we have been talking about all morning.
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we know we need a heavy lift rocket. we need human rated capital. we need a use of technologies to explore deep space including mars. for the next three days you will see a focus on particular areas of technology development. we have studied the technologies we need four years. .n my office i have 40 reports many of you probably contributed to those reports. we have a good handle on what we need. one of the highest priority items we need is high-powered solar repulsion. like any explorers, we need to be able move in space. we need to be able to use propulsion to get where we need to go. what efficient way is using high solar powered propulsion. boeing has an all electric spacecraft. we are at the limit of what we
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can do with today's technology. we have a crosscutting need to develop solar electric propulsion for my customers, human exploration, a number of capabilities they need. develop thiso technologies and get them ready for use in the aerospace community. this has not only uses in science and human expiration but also in the nation's telecommunications and satellite industries. we are trying to demonstrate high-powered solar propulsion. to use solar electric propulsion to take the robotic spacecraft out to the asteroids and bring it back erie i. >> let's try to connect the dots a little bit. i mention going to an asteroid .n lunar space is not martyrs
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the line we hear from nasa and we have to take it to people is that this is going to help us get two bars. i would like you to talk about what things you can do with this small body that later contribute to doing some alert rings or maybe even the same thing around mars. we can offer this to you a little bit. when we bring the asteroid back, there are things we do not need to go there. we will not need a deep space habitation module. we would not need a landing craft which is something you would need for a martian surface. we have ruled out a couple of things. why don't you tell us specifically about some of the -- you canh can tell us what lessons are
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applicable adding an asteroid to mars. lunar gravity assist, learning how to navigate in deep space will be very important to us, to rendezvous with objects in deep space will be an important characteristic we need to operate and understand. we are good at understanding rendezvous approximations. this body of knowledge came .bout over an extensive time it started back in mercury and gemini where we honed and refined those procedures to do the deed space activities. the robotic community has done a lot of work. a have not actually done rendezvous operations. that is one portion. we will start breaking the tie to the earth. today on the space station if we
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have a problem we can come home in a matter of hours. we are back in the safety of the earth. once we get out to this region, depending on where we are weak of the maybe five days away from we could be maybe five days away from the fastest return. this is designed to take care of a crew. abouto, we need to thing this in terms of medical equipment. experiencehance to it. we have a protracted return capability. we have to break the mentality that we can get back to the earth. when to begin this journey, everything better be right. these are things that will be helpful to keep as me being
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forward, to keep expanding. the electric propulsion capability will be helpful for cargo transportation. those are the things we are doing. the other thing is radiation environment. the earth protects us in the space station, getting out to the region of the moon where we can actually go look at orionques in or ryan -- so we can understand what those techniques are. some people think of is only as a capsule. it is more than a capsule. it carries a backup capability. that is why it is as large as it is. that is why it has a life- support system. it can support a crew for 21 days by itself. it can support a habitation module. checkl get a chance to out the backup system. it has that redundancy for you.
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are the kind of things that i think we will be utilizing as he moved forward. >> described to us the differences between the sols orion and what it would take for mars? one for the asteroid mission can take 70 metric tons to lower its orbit. when we're talking about mars class, we need the full sls. we needed a larger rocket. the mars mission is extremely demanding. charlie talked about it. there is probably five or so launches of the capability. then there is maybe another two slshree missions of launches to fit the transit space craft together for the crew.
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the launch would be the fourth piece that then goes out to mars. if you look at the amount of equipment it takes to go to mars, it is dramatically different. in thedo all of this trans-lunar region. we can do it with a single lo aunch. a multiple series of missions that are much more demanding. >> if you had to write down a list of three highlights from everything you just went over, the first when i can remember is rendezvous and proximity outside of lower orbits. can you give us two more boxes that will get checked? >> radiation environment. risk tolerance. the ability to understand how the systems operate. feedback that we need?
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need? backup we you.m going to leapfrog to this segues nicely into the things that michael is working on. you mentioned the solar electric propulsion which is a big heart of the retrieval mission. .t would be useful tell us more about that. i understand there are a few aims you need to do before a fake solar electric propulsion system appears. what we need and what type of technological developments we can expect this year. the state-of- at the-art capability for solar electric propulsion in space craft, it is about 25 kilowatts. that is the most power we can draw from the sun to provide propulsion.
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to get larger you need a higher efficiency solar scales. there is work being done inside of government and outside. what we're talking about may be increasing for something from 27% to maybe maybe in the low 30's. it is not enough where we want to go. we need larger. you need more cells. fit those within the shroud of the current center. that gets you into a deployable system. you need larger raise that will -- rays that will fit. it is an large scale deployable rays. s which arelectronic needed, there is some development needed. you run into radiation problems as well as shock problem's, discharge problems. there are some solutions out
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there. if you look at the thruster site, we have used solar thrusters for years. the challenge for thrusters is propulsion. if you run them for long times, i am particles could hit the sidewalls and erode the hardware you have developed -- the hardware. you have develop ways to prevent that erosion. the best we can see is we need to develop the large scale. as early as two years ago we saw the need. we made an investment in the development of these large scale raisys. one is scheduled to complete
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later on in 2014. that early investments and recognition of what is needed is really key to our director. that is what i think our job is. it is that early investment that enables the timeline. it is because of that early need. see some savvy faces. can you tell us who is working? >> we ran the competition last summer. these are both located in california. >> now that we know how we are getting there or how we hope to, the science of an asteroid has to be different than the science you can do on mars. what exactly is the urgency for the science mission direct her to get out? to get out?
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what is the urgency for the science mission direct youor ton the mission -- director to do the mission? >> we have been very careful. one of the things -- >> your microphone is not working. >> can we get a bullhorn for john? a reboot? any luck. we will boldly old-fashioned way. is that better? go the old-fashioned way. is that better? ,> when you are in the helmet the mike's are misplaced and are in big trouble. knowing can hear you. no one can hear you. there are techniques.
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we have been clear that this is not a science driven mission. wetime we return samples are talking about going to a stony asteroid. they are delivered to the earth every day, several times a year, very large one. we retrieved pieces from the surface of the earth. eley are modified as a travai through the earth's atmosphere. this is being designed as a technology mission as leaning toward human spaceflight into deep space. if you try to compartmentalize, what does it do for human space or technology or science, you miss the bigger point about the rod portfolio of nasa activities that are leading toward mars exploration. missionending the maven
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to mars. it will tell us a lot about the atmosphere conditions. we want to learn about the mars atmospheres. we demonstrated the curiosity landing. on that mission of the mars science laboratory, we had instrumentation that was provided by the human spaceflight in operation mission direct her. we had space technology in heat shield implementation. it is one of the first time we had telemetry on the way down. we have a little bit more margin that will allow us in 2020 two send the u.s. rover based on
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.he msl technology we're still talking about what the content will be. it will include elements of technology of humans and and spaceflight, certainly of science. orcharlie said, it in 2016 2018 we are competing with the europeans. we have really demonstrated this works. we are really setting the stage technologically and from a science driver to understand what conditions are like on mars. we are sending the insight that is going to land on mars. we're going to get additional characteristics on that. we are probably going to use some of the same tools and techniques we have used.
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-- and an and norma's norma's amount technology we are sending to mars, trying to bring more of nasa to bear. >> i would like to linger. let's stay with you for just a second. scientistcently to a too was involved with the james webb space telescope. we did greatest. -- digressed. we spoke of the purpose of doing a science mission. to speak to me about how it applies to me. i got a counterpoint about doing science for its own sake and doing science to complement other activities like exploration or technology
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development. bitdon't you talk a little about walking that line and make sure everyone is coming away with something? and a good compromise no one is happy. much morees back to fundamental questions. why do we do basic research? ?hy do we have nasa what is nasa's mission? let me just say that fundamental basic science is humaneder for all of the spaceflight. we learn things about nature and the universe. from a strictly u.s. investment strategy, when we try to do these hard science rejects we challenge our contractors, our engineers, to invent new things. that is how we make forward
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progress for the economy and jobs and human health and understanding. all of these things work together. to do something where we are building a large cryogenic mirror that will go 25 miles from earth. sunshieldge telescope has to fold up like a transformer into a rocket anding survive launch codes and thently deploy unravel the mysteries of the universe. that is really hard. most of the investment up front a series of 10g or 12 key technologies that no one had ever done before. every one of the manufacturers that help solve those problems
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now has a toolkit that allows them to go into other fields and industries. once we get the telescope on station, the function is to unravel the mysteries of the universe. what are the atmosphere is like on planets on nearby stars? have the atmospheric signals that we have here? do those planets habitable? they show any signs of water vapor? is there life there? it is getting pretty close. what does that have to do with mars? human exploration. we live in a solar system of riches. venus looks a lot like earth. the atmosphere makes it on hospital for life -- on hospitable for life as we know
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it. we have amazing moons of saturn and jupiter. fascinating fundamental science. are we alone in the earth is a compelling question for everyone. in our own solar system we have .hese examples of places mars is unique. it once was habitable for life as we know it. we know it could have been. warm freshwater lakes. a thick atmosphere. amazing possibilities. that the only planet humans can live on.
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be the permanent feature, we have to go beyond mars. james webb is one step in the broader one. .he telescope is a spectrograph it may be able to tell us a lot about mars that we cannot do from earth-based instruments. specific ones. hopefully this will be in -- answered by curiosity. where does this come from? ors it come from geologic life processes? we have not detected local methane on mars. curiosity will be there.
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we are hopeful we will protect it. we are sending maven and the march 2020 rover. it is more the broader exploration. i think all science is exploration. wen we send humans to mars, have both the capable technically. >> we have these internal governments. are now and what we saw on curiosity, we are working on hard problems. thingseally challenging to do. look at curiosity in august. did you see the landing?
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i will assume that you did see it in august. the public really was excited about that. it was hard. we took a risk. when we talk about some of the things we are doing now with the space telescope in the mirrors we have to build in the sunshield, we are talking about operating in deep space. we have never done that before. those are common challenges. we know we need technology to solve that. we need developments. what the focus is of the agency. >> some good food for thought. i would like to boil all these questions down to one. preparequestion is, to to go to mars and the ways you have discussed, why do we need to examine an asteroid in lunar space? couldn't we simply go to lunar
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space empty as it is? again, i think the idea is not the asteroid itself. john describes the scientific merit is not as strong. you need an object you can go to. this gives us an capability to look at the potential mars sample return. to goproach could be ahead and use exactly the same tech week we're using with the using withe we are the sample. this will put it into the orbit. orion can extrapolate it.
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as fast as i can operate this, this mission allows us to do that. it allows us to advance our capabilities and knowledge so we are ready to move to mars without a significant advancement that puts us off on a side road. all the work we're doing is in that direction. it it is not about returning the asteroid to be a sammons. it is more about using it as an object that can develop capabilities and technologies, cheap is how to -- keep us how to develop these technologies to move toward mars. life support can be done on the space station. these all fit. the space station is fitting right in. the next spaces to deface navigation.
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we can continue on building our capabilities that we can pull to go do allows us this mars mission. >> let me add one other piece. your specific question was about the asteroid mission the administrator talked about. in the broader context of trying to understand asteroids and hazards his object, we know from the geologic record on earth and the moon to understand the solar system context. just recent events of now that we have telescopic observations and we are tracking these objects, we are building up a catalog of things that eventually the earth and an asteroid will be in the same place at the same time. s role is to give
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a technology that will allow us to give us a little shove so the earth and the asteroid or not in the same place at the same time. technology,lectric the operations we are talking about, strongly contribute to that. why do we want to go to mars? it is going to make much faster scientific rugrats. we will understand -- significant progress. we will understand, where did the atmosphere go? where is the watcher? single planet species do not survive. a fact. we do not want to prove it. dinosaurse large were wiped out. that will happen again someday. we do not want to progress to the point where we have the
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capability to deflect an asteroid that would be threatening in a large-scale destruction of the earth. -- first step is expanding the rate at which we identify. this is part of the larger challenge of saving the earth. and moving out expiration at the same time. ,> if you look at leveraging if you look at the capabilities and the work we are doing today, you can make a good argument that doing this operation and mission leverages a lot of the work we are doing today. it pushes it forward in the direction we need to go. >> ok. i think we still have a few minutes. let talk practically for a moment. , i do note pipeline want to say slow to a drizzle,
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but that is an easy way to put it. we have on mars today may not be exactly what we have on slated tohumans are arrive there. why don't you talk about the onet that we need to have mars around the time when people are going to be there. what is the minimum? >> we wanted to relay communications. we will need some type of communication system. they also captured some pretty nice images of the heat shield
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and other things during reentry. it was somewhat serendipitous. >> all of you have seen the picture taken from her bit -- from orbit? i just went a quick show of hands. i'm checking to see people far away. they have this for high rates. we are going to do this later this year. this is the first step. eventually we will get there. we clearly need some type of communication. we also need to bring autonomy where the crew can do things alone without us. we went to a recent. where the sun was between the earth and mars. there will be a couple weeks time frame where we will have no communication with cruise on the
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surface. we have to figure out how we develop aor communication system that is not adversely affected. we have lots of challenges along those lines. we also need to look at potential generations off the surface. resource utilization will be a tremendous asset. we talked about electric propulsion. there are all these pieces that need to be here. they had that list of all of these technologies and capabilities. we need to build the systematic approach to try to understand each of these technologies as fast as we can. >> anything? >> we are working on some of the technologies today of the challenges that bill mentioned.
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a part of their -- that is get there as fast as you can, whether it is cryogenic propellants as a booster to get you there. store it may be nine hours. we need turn that into months. marsyou get to the atmosphere than it is about slowing down as fast as you can. , the mars rover was a metric ton. that is the most we can put on the surface with the technology we have today. the best we can do is a metric ton and we can only grant him less than half of the planet's surface because we had to land at low elevation. some of these studies show that
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maybe you need 40 metric tons. , how welle vicinity can you land where you want to land? thealked about the explorer ability to live on a system that is reliable. medicine, food, communication. and then finally get back off the surface of the planet. we are working on these to .mprove the way to get ready >> it is not just human spaceflight or science. jim is going to tell you about the rest of this decade. when we landed be 2020 rover on mars at the end of this decade, we do not know the content of the instrument and technology. it is going to be amazing.
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not just be the 2020 rover. hopefully the mars reconnaissance orbiter will still be there. it'll be quite long in the tooth. people want something to follow on. this has brought us all these amazing images to the surface. it has only mapped about two percent on high resolution. we are going to want to know where should we land? people like to drink water.
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there will be an infrastructure that will be science or event but will have these operational components. if we are in the vicinity of mars and land sometime shortly after, we are going to need all of the resources of science and technology to bring to bear so we can get them on the surface. >> it is reasonable to say that in addition to the launches that would be required we would be looking at other launches for support spacecraft or orbiters. weit is very likely that will send some type of a land rover to the site we want to send people first that will explore around and drill a couple of meters down and say we er that is fresh and
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will be the beacon that allow subsequent missions to navigate to a very precise landing incident the kilometer scale that we can do now. you have not repeated that. we can put something right next to but not on top of an existing asset. >> we have to work on that. as is a big atmosphere. this.ed they will have to be guided. we talk about all of this infrastructure we have to put in place. is this really one mission? what is the delta between them? should those assets be in place? be some probably
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discussions about mars that potentially can be an ability to get cargo to and from mars. we to think about that. we typically have thought about this in a single mission kind of thing. this is something you could recognize. this takes a different thoughts. it takes more of a capability driven thing. what does the delta need? should that be our goal incident a single mission? i am sure you have thought about this a lot more than i have but i think it is a good discussion. >> i think we have just under 15 minutes. the rest of the time, the audience is yours. please come up to the microphone. >> in the first hour and 15 minute we spend more about an
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asteroid mission than a mars mission. can someone talk about the inception of the asteroid mission, was there a director that proposed it? was there a committee? how do we get involved in this asteroid mission? since i do to anyone not want to make any enemies. a microphone here. whoever wants to pick it up. we will move along to the next microphone. >> we were told in 2010 to go to an asteroid by the resident as a goal. we have been looking at ways to do that. ews to an to take cruis asteroid. it is difficult to find an object. if you did, you almost ended a
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robotic rakers are mission. mission.sor through this we collectively got together and we read the studies among other activities that have gone on. hasll came up with what been described now as this asteroid mission that you talked about. who is collectively? >> almost the entire agency. we discussed this across all of the pieces. did it really make sense? we talked about capability driven. does it enable lunar activity? yes. it helps with the overall structure of what we're trying to do with humans. it has real advantages. >> thank you. sciences.n is about
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long-termking about missions. we are talking about humans. the focus is about technology. technology and science, both things we need to do. i'm interested in learning more about life sciences and how we're going to be ready to support human life in these long-term missions. i know we're talking about one year missions coming up. we have really big things we need to know and be able to survive to do these missions. a that sounds an awful like built question. >> i will take it but it will make nomad. -- bill mad. informed a lot more on spaces. we have issues of human
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physiology and the environment of radiation and deep space and things we are unfamiliar with. theyour mars missions, carried a radiation monitor with it. we evaluated the radiation on a trip to mars. we know about it. we know we will need shielding. we will probably not hang out on the surface. we will need some type of covering of habitats that give you additional shielding. we want to go as fast as possible. we need this in any spacecraft. we sometimes take shelter on the international space station. wen i was doing spacewalks had the space radiation analysis. we were following the sun very closely. we were not very well shielded. when you review the history of spaceflight, the challenge has humans cannot survive
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in space. not only do we survive, we thrive. high levels ofn bone mineral density and muscle tone and cardiovascular tone and high immune system's, all of the things we were told would deteriorate over time. through the miracle of modern science, diet and exercise keep you healthy and lower orbits. it is a lot deeper than that. i am keeping it at a very high level. you need vitamin d in space the same way you do on earth. it is a precursor hormone for brain function, cardiovascular function, and about 15 other things. most americans are deficient in vitamin d here on earth. we are reaffirming what we learned here on earth. when you
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go to mars, you will want to make sure you have good diet and exercise. that will be a fundamental part of the technology. when people go on long missions or when they are in overtly thrown into it, there are challenges. inadvertently thrown into a, there are challenges. from my position as a risk taker, i would love to go to mars, i do not think any of those are insurmountable. like radiation, how does it affect the central nervous system, those are small problems compared to the risk of launching an sls were going through the martian atmosphere at 13,000 miles an hour knowing how little atmosphere there is to slow you down. they are not ones we should forget. we need to pay attention.
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that is the beauty of the international space station. it gives you a laboratory to work on those things. >> thank you for coming. this is a question for michael about the solar electric propulsion system for the asteroid mission. of theld that relate humans to mars mission? would you be able to take out to mars? how long would it take? does it buy you anything in terms of relative velocity? >> if you look at the previous solar electric repulsion has been mainly invision for cargo manipulation, getting assets. it is not incredibly fast. it is reliable and efficient.
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we can use it then to get the assets and the things we need to the surface. exact ratio. the it is on the order of multiple sls flights and reductions. >> i have a question for any of the panelists. ars puts boot on the ground, what lessons do you expect he will be learning from them? [laughter] >> somebody has to have an opinion. >> as i look out in the audience
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and see people like doug cook cuban been working mars -- who marks for twong decades. we are all dreamers. we believe we are at a place and boots one we can put the surface of mars and the relative new future. as you look at all of the interest in spaceflight and technology, public, private, commercial government, all of the planets are aligned. the enormous progress we are , i do not want to comment on any specific elements other than to say it is not just going to take the theory directors to nasa to make progress. our industrialof
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contractors. it'll take the air. it'll take the american public to be on board. .o be able to do something it'll be very hard an. >> nasa has been in business for a time. only did apolo ohno a new how to go do it. we did apollo, no one knew how to go do it. now when i look at the technologies involved, i cannot help but be ethical -- skeptical of our own planes. i cannot wait. i would love to see it. >> when people left on the oregon trail, they knew only a fraction of people would make it to the west coast but people still went. am sure there are others who have been at these meetings before and have heard me raise these questions.
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i headed the nuclear rocket propulsion development program four decades ago. we talked to, let's start planning for landing on mars. human landing on mars. and il keep saying that headed that program. i keep saying that through the four decades since that time, and i have not heard any mention of that at all. talk about upgrading what we had developed for we said let's start planning for mars landings with get going with the advanced propulsion that could be available now based on that technology. >> i'm going to speak and then
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hand it to mike. i agree with you 100%. it is very clear to me that in the long-term, if i look out 100 or 200 years, that if we are really going to go out and explore the system will reduce the amount of time. if we are going to have nuclear out inton, looking the future that unless you invest in that it will never happen. i am going to hand it over to mike. our director.gh for the first time in a number of years we are investing in some of those nuclear technologies. >> i still do not think it will make you feel all that better. for the past decade we have done a lot of studies. i am trying to move be on dip. we have to get onto the
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technologies. nuclear propulsion's. it is one of areas where you can see the benefits. you can see why you need it. you know it takes a considerable amount of money to develop it. those are the hardest ones to do. if we do not start and you will never get there. within the direct or we have a number of modest investment to move the needle forward. so we have a number of tech nongs that are in that place. i think the good news is we have a plapzpwiveren what we have today and with the technology, we can have the resources and the ability to do some modest investments in what we call the lower trl to preserve the future that at some point when we have the budget and the time we can go after it.
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>> very sorry everyone who is still waiting. >> i still believe we could concentrate on that development and narrow it and go directly to that at this point if we aimed at that. >> and on that bomb shell we're at time. thank you very much. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national able satellite corp. 2013]
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>> over the next hour we'll look at some of our first ladies tnd places that nfluenced their lives. >> eeths clear that after martha arrives there's a lot of management that she has to do. when she marries george washington, she brings with her to mount vernon 12 house slaves and that is really almost an unimaginable luxury. these are slaves who for the most part are not field labor are not producing crops, which is where your income is coming from. they are doing things like cooking, serving, cleaning, laundry, sowing. this is not productive labor in the sense that it's not producing income. so she brings those slaves with her and she brings financial
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resources to the marriage as well as her managerial skills, makes mount vernon a successful operation and makes it possible for washington to be away for eight years fighting a war. so the fact that washington has this support system that enables him to volunteer his time and talents to run the revolution is clearly critical. first, a farm manager who during most of the revolution is a distant cousin of george washington and then later in 1780s the farm manager is george august stin washington who is washington's nephew and he ends up marrying fanny bassett who is mardsa washington's niece. so i think that tells you something about the closeness of some of the family relationships. but it's clear from the correspondance that while they're at mount vernon with martha washington she was a take-charge woman. in terms of her international
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with the slaves, she's interacting with the cooks in the kitchen, the maids who are serving in the house. there are also slave women who are spinning on a continual basis to produce yarn. she supervises what the gardeners are doing. martha was a great lover of gardens and having cut flowers. she liked having a kitchen garden that she could go out and bring in vegetables for what they're going to be able to serve at mount vernon. she is the one who is really planning the menus. there are just a lot of levels that she is working with. so we know that it's a big operation really the center of her whole life. >> a close friend of martha washington abigail adams spent most of the time during the revolution in quincy, massachusetts. >> the story of abigail adams and the revolutionary war is a story of sacrifice, of commitment to country. and abigail rose to the occasion. for the first ten years of their married life john and abigail lived in this home from
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1764 to 177 . it's where they raised their four children. this was the birthplace also of their second child john quincy adam who went on to become the sixth president of the united states. it's also an important home because the primary link between she and john adams who was serving at philadelphia in the second continental congress would be letter writing and it was from this house that he was provide add window to what was happening back here in the colony of massachusetts during the revolutionary war. abigail would report to john about the militia in boston during the battle of bunker hill on june 17, 1775 she took her young son john quincy right over down the road the high point and she would watch the battle of bunker hill with her son and report to john adams of the fires and the smoke rising from charles town. she was literally the ice of the revolution to john adams and essentially the second continental congress in
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philadelphia. >> abigail adams' par legislator we're in the hub of the household. this room in particular could be really considered the classroom for abigail the school mistress and her four children. durk the war one must remember the schools were closed down so the children did not benefit from a formal education. instead, it was up to abigail to teach them the lessons not only arithmetic and french but also morality, literature, and what was going on in the revolutionary war. she was their primary educator here in this home. and this is the room where many of those lessons would have taken place. she reported to john adams at one point she began to take up the works of rollins ancient history and she was having john quincy read her at least two painls a day. i don't know if anybody's read it but for a seven-year-old boy to accomplish this he had a very good instructor in abigail adams. during the occupation of boston
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there were many refugees leaving from boston out into the country and they needed a place to live. ever the patriot, abigail adams wanted to open the home next goor, john adams' birth place for the refugees. she renlted out the house. she reported that to john that she met with some very ill treatment. with the refugees but he refused. by the time abigail received a response from john adams like many things she had solved the problem and reported to john later she had taken care of the problem and paid mr. hayden to leave the premises therefore providing the opportunity for her to how's refugees fleeing from boston. there are troops that are marching in her yard practicing their maneuvers in preparation for war. she reports to john that young john quincy is out behind the house marching proudly behind the militia. at one point there were
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militias living in the upstairs attick and upstairs floor. she welcomed them to her home and supported the war with her actions. in 1787 abigail realized they had outgrown their little cottage and she began to negotiate through her cousin to purchase the house we're standing in front of right now. john adams enjoyed a lot of peace and tranquility at this home as did abigail so he christened his home peace field. there were two rooms on the first floor, two rooms on the second and three smaller bedrooms on the third floor and a small kitchen in the back of the house so essentially seven and a half rooms. this was their home base. before becoming first lady, abigail would spend nine years in this house. the first year she essentially was setting up the house after just returning from europe. she had remembered this house as one of the grand houses in
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quincy but her perception of grand had changed since living in umplete she began, though, right away making plans to enlarge the house. she wanted to improve on the size and the height of the ceilings and the size of the space. she would in fact write to her daughter warning her not to wear any of her large fetsored hats the ceilings were too low. so she began working with an architect in effect doubling the size adding a long hall and entertainment room where she would receive her guests. with sensitivity to the architecture outside tabbed flow of the home she had the builder dig down so that they could lower the floors and get the high ceilings that she desired without disrupting the architecture on the outside of the house. you step down two steps and you're in a whole different world. a typical day for abigail would be to rise at 5:00 a.m. she had many chores to do much of her time here was spent
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tending the farm, taking care of the orchard and taking care of the house. but she also loved those early morning hours to spend by herself, preparing herself for the day but most importantly having a chance to indulge in one of her novels. although this is a presidential home, it is the home of a family and abigail, instead of having servants doing all the work for her even as the first lady, she would also be contributing to the kitchen and the running of the household. this was something that she continued throughout her life no matter what her position was. she was very involved. she had children and grandchildren visiting her here and it was a very actedive and lively household. she also spent a great deal of her time writing because again their misfor tune in being apart was our for tune. in one letter when he's asking her to come to philadelphia abigail would write of the room that she was in and the window and the view that she saw. the beauty which unfolds outside of the window at which
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i now write temperatures me to forget the past. an indication that while abigail was back here at peace field she was on a new beginning as the first lady of the united states, as the wife of the president and also still a mother. she would describe life here at peace field so romantically that john adams would reply in one of his letters, oh my sweet little farm what i would do to enjoy thee without interruption. >> known for her heroics during the war of 112, dolly madison was also a trend setter in fashion. >> most of the dresses we have at the visitor's center are based on descriptions that we have of the way that dolly dressed. but one dress that we own is a recreation of something that we still have. this is typical of the style of the day. it shows classical lines, a simple drape, and it was much more simple and elegant than the fashion either before or after it.
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and this is the sort of style that dolly would have worn while she was first lady. it's the riegesy style. but many of the dresses were more elegant. this represents what she wore at her inaugural. this is james madison's first inaugural. and at the ball she wore what was described as a simple buff velvet and she wore perls which is something both more classically elegant but less os ten thai shs than the diamonds you would normally find in the courts of europe. dolly was setting a style that was unique to american fashion. a lot of people think that dolly set the fashion of the turbin and that's not quite true. it began in pesha and it moved through france and england. but dolly popularized the style and that was considered her classic look. to wear some sort of extravagant turbin often topped with feathers on top of her
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head. people noticed it. and sometimes they thought that her fashion was a little bit too regal. there was one instance where she wore something that was lined in you rememberen and she wore some guilt edging in her turbin and people said that this was overstepping things. she looked too regal. she looked too queenly and they were afraid that queen dolly was setting the wrong tone for republican america. now, toward the end of her life dolly still wore many of the fashions that she wore in her earlier day. she was the last living matriarch of this generation. but some of it was because of the growing penry in her life. she didn't have the money to buy the latest fashions. she had to wear many of her old clothes and repurpose them. and if you see, she had several
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dagger types and paintings made of her final days and she is often wearing the same thing. >> a more private first lady, elizabeth monroe, gained a reputation as being queenly. >> one of the most authentic in the house. if i could go back to one time in the white house i would probably go back to the monroe period after the war of 1812 because the wheels of the united states really begin to turn. it began to come to life and monroe of course thought that the era of good feeling, as it was called, would last forever and political parties would dissolve. people would begin moving west in big numbers and new orleans developed. i think that would be the period i would like to be listening to what was going on. >> in furnishing the house they were very into french everything. they spoke french at home and
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they lived in france so he wanted all the furniture to come from france and he spent a lot of money bringing these things such as the clocks, which fascinate me this most, have stood and ticked away. these things are still in use. many things. so you have that that all the presidents have used since then. when you see our earliest things, many of them are in the blue room. so we have the wonderful guilt chairs and sofa in the room. they are acquired by president monroe from france. he was criticized for buying french and not american. in fact congress in 1826 pass add law saying the furniture of the white house must be of american manufacturer, if practcabble. this room is much more of a period room in that sense that the wall paper is much more of the same period as the furniture, as the portrait of president monroe and mrs. monroe. so it's really a place where
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the monroes would probably feel the most comfortable, too, like teddy roosevelt in the east room. they would say i understand this room. the furniture we bought, the portraits we sat for and this is wall paper that is of our vintage. >> the only first lady born outside the u.s. had to make a few adjustments to her new life in america. and with her mother in-law former first lady abigail adams. >> when luisa and john quincy first came to the old house they had just jurenied back from europe, landed in washington, d.c. and then made the journey oup to quincy. the journey was arduous. her health was not good at the time and her journey was very difficult. she was brought to the house to meet her father and mother in-law. and of that moment she would write, had i stepped on to noah's ark i could not have been more utterly astonished. she had a challenge in winning over abigail adams.
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john adams was easy. he took o to her right away and she always felt comfortable and well liked by him. abigail was more skeptical perhaps due to john quincy's teasing. he only gave abigail a little bit of information about luisa and wasn't forthright in his intentions. it was in many ways a surprise that he married luisa katherine so quickly and abigail did not get a chance to know her. she was quite concerned that although she was an american citizen she had never stepped foot on american soil. this was not what she intended for her son john quincy adams to statesman. but through time, she learned to grow and love and understand luisa katherine and through the years they fornled a very strong and loving relation shfment luisa katherine describing abigail adams at the end of the life as the planet around which all revolved. luisa katherine and john quincy, unlike john adams, did
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not live at peacefield year around. they would only return during the summer months to get relief from politics of washington. in his work's the education of henry adams, he describes luisa katherine and her role in this house and her relationship with the family. he always felt that she was the odd man out, if you will, because she was born in england and educated in france. and she remained a foreign personality to many of the adamses but not to henry as a world traveler himself. his fondest recollection is lisa sitting in the panled room using her civil ver teapot set she brought with her from her home in england and she would entertain both herself and many of her guests in this room. john quincy adams and luisa would inherit this home. johns quincy thought about
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selling this house but after discussion and thought with luisa they decided that this was important to the family story, to hold on to this house for future generations. >> prior to the election of 1828, rachel jackson enjoyed a brief time of retirement at her home sharing with close friends and a lot of family. >> they came to this property in 1804. he was just sort of retiring for a while. so when they first moved here he spent a lot of time at home. the primary people who would have visited prior to the war of 1812 would have largely been friends and relations from the area. she had a huge family and they all had lots of kids so there was a lot of them and they were in and out all the time. and rachel is very close to her family. jackson being an orphan grew very close to rachel's family. emily donaldson, the house she grew up in, is less than two
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miles away from here. after the war of 1812 when she becomes this national hero, there were people here all the time. d rachel was pretty -- acknowledged to be a pretty nice hostess. very cordial and very welcoming. during jackson's fame after the battle of new orleans, pretty much from 1815 on through the rest of rachel's life, they had lots and lots of company and they had many, many parties or evening dinners or things here at the heritage. and they were entertaining people who were used to fine things in the city and they appreciated those fine things, too, so they acquired a good deal of silver as they went along such as these punch cups here. they would have been used for evening party where probably some very highlyly qurred up punch was served. she had very, very nice things.
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so this kind of dual image of her as frumpy country lady, she wasn't that exactly. i think it was more about her comfort in the big cities than it was about her actual appearance or clothing. rachel was not a fan of anything that took andrew jackson away from the hermentage. during the war of 1812 there are letters from her that say things like, yes, do not let fame and for tune blind you to the fact you have a wife and i'm home and i need you. and i think he knew pretty well that she would have preferred him just to stay home and be plantation owner andrew jackson. this is the earliest letter we have that jackson wrote to rachel and it was written in 1796 when he was in east tennessee on business and it's
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addressed to her, my dearest heart. it says, it's with greatest pleasure i sit down to write to you though i am absent my heart wrests with you and with what pleasing hopes i view the future period when i shall be restored to your arms there to spend my days in domestic sweetness with you the dear companion of my life. never to be separated from you again during this transitory influctuating life. the garden was always considered one of her really special places lots of comments from visitors about her gathering flowers to use them. there's one story when a young lady was here on her money moon and she and her husband were invited to stay and she mentions that the garden was very special to rachel and that when they were preparing to leave to move on to the next stage of their honey moon she walked through the garden with rachel and rachel gathered
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flowers and gave her a posey before they left. >> raised in society, angelica van buren was well suited for her role as white house hostess. >> angelica and her husband abraham would spend the summers here. for most of the time that president van buren lived here. here in the dining room, angelica would have served as hostess. he had many social eevepbletses an equal number of political events and during those times angelica if she was here would be the hostess. she was quite refined being that she was so wealthy and she had all the appropriate social graces for the time. so much so that even the ambassador from france who was typically critical of m manners and social graces complimented her. martin van buren purchased the home in 1839 during the second year of his presidency along
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with 130 acres. later he added 100 acres. here in the green room one of two par lors on the first floor, typically the women of the house would engage in a variety of activities, polite conversation, they would read or recite from memory to one another. they would oftentimes play par legislator games in here. angelica was trained in philadelphia on the harp. we have a harp here. there were occasions where she would have played the harp for the other female guests here in the green room. >> this was the breakfast room here. it's much more intimate room compared to the main hall that you saw earlier. it's a place where the family had their daily meals. the china that you see here mongrammed is the daily china that they used in the household here. angelica would have ate off these plates. it's easy to imagine her serving somebody tea or passing the gravy boat. >> in july of 1843 while
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angelica and abraham were visiting her father-in-law here she suffered a miscarriage and we know from letters that she wrote that during that time she conva lessed on this couch here in the main hall. earlier while she was serving as a hostess at the white house she had another baby girl die as an infant while she was there. angelica and abraham did have three sons that lived through adulthood. here on the second floor, abraham and angelica would have spent a great deal of time while they were visiting her father-in-law, president van buren. we had several dresses that were owned and worn by her and it's easy to imagine her wearing them at one of the events here or even perhaps at the white house that she hosted for the president. the pair sol she would have likely used during the summer months visiting while out on the grounds. it was a large farm of 240 acres. i believe that martin van buren and his daughter in-law had a very close relationship. he was a very aimable man that
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was why he was very successful in politics and she was trained in the social graces of the 19th century i think they genuinely cared for one another. >> prior to becoming first lady and as her husband worked on his political future, let sha tyler raised the family and managed the plantation. >> in 1836 when john tyler resigned from the united states he and his wife and family moved here to williamsburg to establish his law practice. in fact, we've reconstructed his law office and his laundry the house that they lived in is no longer here but here in williamsburg per feblingtly situated at the center of the town, at the center of the legal part of the town. the courthouse is right across the street near all of the markets near all of the shops. this is sort of the beating heart of williamsburg even in the 1830s. and so all of the political activities, the social activity, they're really living
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at the center of it in this fantastic 18th century house that they were living in as john tyler is resurrecting his political career. after they move here when she is sort of running this household and running the entire tyler family she's going to be operating out of the house the business that is the tyler family running their various planttations all over the place. it's right here that she suffered a stroke in 1839 that partly paralyzed her although she was still able to retain control of the family accounts, of all the family business while john tyler was actually getting back involved in politics. it's right here in this phase that john tyler learned that he was elected as vice president to william henry harrison and it's also here in the spring of 18 41 where he was informed that he became tenth president of the united states. and here so she learned that she became the first lady of the united states.
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>> when her term as first lady was over, julia tyler and the president retired to their plantation along the james river. >> the tylers, john tyler was born in charles city county at queenway and he purchased this house at the end of his presidential term. he came down here once before he retired from the presidency, brought with him julia gardner. they were married and she said the hand of god and nature have been kind to my sherwood forest, but i can improve upon it. which she did. ceilings imported from ceiling, the mantle pieces and the knocker from italy -- you have to look hard to see it, it has sherwood forest on
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it but it has been meticulously polished through the years and that was one of her contributions. julia and her mother were very, very close and we are exceedingly fortunate to have many letters written between julia and her mother from this plantation. in the hot summer weather -- this house is only one room wide because you want the breezes to go from the north to the south and from the souds to the north and so they would sit in the hall quite frequently and she sat in the open doorway that led to the south porch and wrote let torse her mother. and quite frequently she commented on the president who kept his feet on the banister and would read his newspaper and throw it on the floor. in the gray room is a table and it's the table upon which we are told john tyler served julia tyler breakfast in her bedroom after he had been around the house after his
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horback ride he would go to that table and have breakfast with his wife, which he personally would carry in on a tray because she was still in bed. writes her andher mother says i understand from other people that visit you that you sleep until 9:00 in the morning, and that the president brings you breakfast in bread -- in bed. she says please do not take advantage of and elderly gentleman who dotes upon you. in the afternoons, julia writes to her mother's frequently what she's is doing on this plantation. she reports almost every purchase of furniture in the house. her brothers david and alexander, who were students at princeton, became, on the suggestion of mrs. gardner, her buying agents. for instance, the mirror was ordered from a store called baudans. when it comes, she is distressed because of the
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bottom the edge of the mirror of the window facing. her mother writes her back and sets do not be so picky on my new shop. -- on minutia. entertain.e to she had a ball in honor of her sister, margaret. julietta portrait of and margaret, she was two years younger than march -- then margaret. even see the water in the background. they were very, very young when the portrait was done. anyway, the ball that she had for margaret started at 9:00. and then she says they danced the virginia rail and the waltz until the sun rose, and the finest champagne flowed unceasingly. among one thing that julia did -- for entertainment is
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bailout all the house servants children to play continuously with the children of the big house. speaksers, julia tyler of her children playing with the children in the yard. she speaks of their dancing with their children in the art. the supervision of the house servants, and there were many, there were a total of almost 90 slaves, vacillated and number between 61 and 92 on the playstation, so the house servants, i think there were 15 house servants here. they were totally heard supervision as was the medical care of the other service any plantation. they were happy in this household. she loved it. she refers to the melody of his voice. she always refers to his intelligence. she had a wonderful time here. sarahing our program on
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polk, we looked at how she saw the importance of her presentation as first lady. >> >> how sarah looked was important to her. certainly from the standpoint of how she looked and how she was perceived by the public. also saw as a reflection on the presidency itself. she was known for having beautiful dresses and looking incredible in a white house that was equally beautiful. the blue dress was purchased in paris, france in 1847 by mrs. polk and worn by her late in the administration. it is basically a robe. it would be the undress dress costume of a first lady if she was taking visitors before she was properly dressed, this would be the dress she would wear. the white dress is a ball ground -- a ball gown, also made in paris, france. high-end fashion. it is a style that mrs. polk used again and again. we get the indication that she found a style that she liked and kept with. it is a beautiful down, silk
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gown, silk and satin. the frugal woman she was often purchased dresses and it would buy a great deal of material to go along with them to enhance and change the way that they looked. so instead of having to buy five or six gown, she would buy a single down and buy extra material to make them look differently. mrs. polk was a master at accessorizing. she had a wonderful collection of handbags and purses and ridicules. and then of course her jewelry was of the american mode in the 19th century. we thought it to be un-american to where precious gems. instead, she were gold and silver. her headdresses are unusual. they are incredibly rare. so few of these headdresses have survived because they're made out of silks and saddens and tend to get worn out here and we have a wonderful collection of headdresses. one unusual piece -- a turban, which by the 1840 close the
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would have fallen a little bit out of fashion. dolly madison was still alive during the polk administration and was a regular visitor. we wonder if sarah polk did not adopt that style after mrs. madison. >> a feature by trade, abigail fillmore was the first to have an occupation before becoming a first lady. >> this charming home belongs to millard and abigail fillmore. they did meet when they were both teachers. they both had this desire and love of reading. abigail was brought up in a family that had many books. her father was a baptist preacher, and he loved to read. so she was surrounded by books are whole lifetime. when she moves into this house with millard fillmore, she continues that. they had their own personal library, and she wanted to let young people learn extensively
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about the world as it was. this room that we are in is actually the focus of the entire house. .istory is made right here she independently employed herself as a teacher. she tutored young students in the evening, namely in the course of history. this room would have been the living room, but also serve as their kitchen. here in front of the fireplace, millard and abigail would spend hours by the light of the fire. they would do their reading and writing. abigail fillmore cooked in this very room. this was her kitchen. here we are in the fillmore bedroom. the original staircase has quite an angle to it. we do believe it was a wooden ladder at that time when abigail and millard lived here. so as a young wife and mother dressed in a long skirt and with a toddler on her hips, she ascended that letter into the
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ladder into the bedroom. within this room, we have the fillmore bed and dresser. when know that abigail was a very wonderful seamstress. we do have her quilt here, a very colorful quit -- quilt called tumbling black pattern. this house being on main street was a very busy place. it was a vibrant immunity. it was frontier, but it was developing. so avid ellwood have also had many visitors. she would've had people come in. possibly they had tea. we can envision abigail having a very full life. her days were full. we do see her as a hospital the -- hospitable young woman. young wife, young will mother, teacher. >> having already lost two sons and hoping her husband would not win election, jane pierce was further distress with her family suffered train accidents. >> this is and over,
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massachusetts. this was on to john and mary aiken. mary was jane pierce's sister. mary was therefore jane at all of her most important times in her life. jane and franklin came to and to andoverit the -- to visit the family. mary and john had children, and franklin and jane became very close and attached to those children after their son pathway. they stayed at the summer white house. it is called that because frenkel and pierce would come visit his wife in andover. jane would stay with her sister, mary, and he would come visit them in the summer in particular. it is believed that the administrative staff states just across the road from them. jane and franklin were staying in andover because there had been a death in the family. jane's uncle had died, and so they went to boston to the funeral. they returned to andover so
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they can head to concord where they could get ready to move to the white house. unfortunately, the train ride was very devastating for the family. they were about a mile outside the train slid down an immigrant. as i understand it, a child was moving about. this was in five minutes of the train ride beginning. when a train roll down, he was hit in the back of the head. he did not survive the crash. bennie to playor an said mary aiken's house. they went to concord to bury him, but jane did not attend. she was grief stricken. jane was very sick most of her life. as is in referred to tubercular. she probably died of a lung disease. she died in andover. >> harriet lane was hostess to
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her uncle, james buchanan, and his many social exhibits at his home, which prepared her for her future position as white house hostess. >> here we are in wheatland, pennsylvania. this is home of president james buchanan. month before harriet's birthday they move here. this was the place that she would call home until the -- until she married and moved to ball more. this room was a very special room because this was the social hub of the home. this is the place where harriet lane, as hostess for her uncle james buchanan, made tea for friend and guests, write letters to her friends, this of the room or the family lived, where they spend time together, play games, sing. just enjoy each other's company. very much like we would use a family room today. here we have harriet lane's piano. this is a gift from her uncle, james buchanan. it was manufactured by a company in boston. it was probably made in the mid to late 1860's. we have her music book here
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during -- book here. this book contained a number of her favorite pieces. we also have some patriotic songs and here. one of her uncle's favorite things to do was to sit in his parlor on a sunday afternoon and listened to his knees play the religious hymns. niece play the religious hymns. it brought a great amount of joy to him. harriet lane was into the ethic about all things european. when her husband -- when her uncle was selected as minister, she was over the moon about the idea that she might get to accompany him as a companion. upon presentation to queen vittoria in the course eight james, ms. lane made a great expection -- a great impression. the queen was impressed with her. very interesting french of that would continue throughout both of their lives.
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this bracelet is actually a gift that the queen gave harriet. it is a beautiful gold bracelet. inside and have her, harriet lane, and the date of 1867 when she receives the gift. the hind me here we have a lithograph of queen victoria and also her husband prince albert. these were a nomadic -- a diplomatic gift present it to president james buchanan and his first lady, harriet lane. they've actually hung in the the white house and were brought back here to their home in wheatland. harriet lane spent quite a bit of time traveling with her uncle, james buchanan. they also entertained international visitors during their time at the white house. one of the most interesting groups that they had visit them with the japanese delegation. the japanese delegation came to the white house in 1860, and they came bearing all types of gifts. what we see here are some of the little things that they brought. beautiful little shoes, paper folded objects, origami, this
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is a little dictionary in japanese. ms. lane and her friends found all of these things is very intriguing. a very ambitious woman, mary todd lincoln saw greatness in her husband and helped him to reach his goals. >> this is the lincoln home in springville, illinois. it is the home where mary helped's political career. mary and abraham would invite friends and family over to talk politics, talk the events of the day. this is where he became the president. mr. lincoln was a very ambitious person. he had a lot of goals in life. but those were then enhanced when he met and married mary todd. she also was very ambitious. she said she wanted to marry a man of good mind and hope for a bright future. she also said she was going to marry a man who would be president. there was something about abraham lincoln that she saw the potential and encouraged it and help develop it.
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she helped polish them up for washington society am of the political parties that they had were they invited a lot of important people. the shrubbery parties talking with the whites of those gentlemen. -- the strawberry parties talking with the wives of those gentlemen. this is the dining room. when they moved in, it was and eat in kitchen. that is not something that a polished, high society, upper class person would do. mary had grown up with a formal dining room in lexington, kentucky, and she felt she needed to have one here because she did not want her children growing up without proper manners. in a letter of cases, mr. lincoln needed a polishing as well. all of her boys needed some polishing, manners, so she created this dining room to have that formal space for she and her family, but also for when they had guests over. there were a lot of different
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people who came to visit mr. lincoln during the 1860 campaign and then after he was elected president. there was actually almost four months between the election and the inauguration, so there were a lot of visitors coming to sprinkle. one of them was william stewart, who ended up being mr. lincoln's secretary of state. mary being an excellent hostess, she would have trays, maybe slices of her famous white cake, or the macaroon pyramid from downtown springfield that they not -- that we know they bought lots of those. you could get your refreshment than here, maybe relax a little bit more after the reform all side -- after the formal side of meeting mr. lincoln. this is the double parlor. these are the two nicest rooms in the house. mary spence no expense -- marble topped tables, brass balances, -- mary spared no expense.
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marble topped tables, brass valances. not everybody in the neighborhood to say that they had a bust of their husband in their living room. so this is a fancy place. this is where she wanted to show off. mary would have held her parties and here where she would have been discussing mr. lincoln's political aspirations. this is where people started when they came to visit during a party. they met mr. lincoln here, he was probably standing in the archway between the two rooms, maybe went to the dining room, picked up a little bit of a refreshment, and then met mary in the sitting room before going out the front door again. this is where mr. lincoln met with the republican national convention committee that told him he had been nominated to run for president. so this was the seat of power in the house. mary helton basically showcase what her husband had done, how far he had come. from that one-room log cabin in the middle of nowhere, kentucky, to this beautiful, comfortable house. kind of hinted at where they
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were headed. abraham lincoln had made it and he was ready to move on. >> because of illness, eliza johnson had to take a different approach to being first lady. >> in this case, we have artifacts relating to andrew johnson's presidency and beyond. we have one of eliza's necklaces, which is a plain black cross, which i think shows her very specific taste. another is her sewing case. pastimes,er favorite being as her closes as she was, were embroidery work, reading poetry, and scrap booking. they did receive political gifts while in the white house. we have an ivory basket, which came from queen emma. that was the first time that a queen had come to visit the white house. andrew johnson was the first president to have the easter egg roll on the white house lawn.
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it had previously been held at the capital. capitol. it is sorted themselves. some theories show that it was held on the white house lawn so that a light that could walk -- could watch. >> during the white house years, eliza chose not to be a senior role of the first lady. she was very ill at that point. during this time, she received many gifts that she brought home with her after they left the white house. one of the most spectacular is this porcelain box that was given to her by the noble 50 pounds and it has of chocolate bonbons in it. we have in the letters from some of her children saying that they would go up to mom's room in the white house to get a treat from the bonbon box. another item that she brought back within rumors of a visit.
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that was of charles dickens, who in 1867, would come visit them at the white house. she returned and brought back one of his books. she was an avid reader. it was her chance to remove her his visit. and charles dickens is one of the most prolific writers of that time period. another item she brought back as a gaming table. , 500 pieces ofnd inlaid wood. they would play games that are still played today. it looks like a regular table when you open it up. but the craftsmanship is incredibly remarkable. another piece that goes back to them during the white house is the fruit container. that was a gift from the children of philadelphia when they were in the white house. it was a brought that back home with her when they returned. years of following her husband from one military outpost to another, julia grant was given a place to call home.
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>> this am with a gift that 13 businessmen purchased to give to the grant family in appreciation for his service during the war. julia mentions in her memoirs coming up to the gift -- coming up to the hill and being resented this villa which she says was furnished with everything good taste could offer. the parlor with the entertaining part of the home. anall know that julia was avid entertainer, loved it. the family spent quite a bit of time here in the parlor also. we know that mrs. grant and their daughter, ellen, played the piano. you can imagine the family sitting here, the general in his favorite chair, the other boys listen to their sister and mother play songs for them. interstate in here, juliett maybe ellen laid a little song for their guest. grant launched his presidential and pain from the desoto hotel. the day after his election, great in julia opened up their home, and the parlor here where
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people could file through and congratulate both of them on his election and the next step of their lives. this is the general and mrs. grant's bedroom. the bed is the oldest piece we have in house. probably the most personal. this is the original bed they brought from whitehaven. putting down some roots here. they left it here. even through all their travels in the white house, this was always here for them when they came back. .his is called a laptop book it has mrs. u.s. grant on it. it was julia's. she probably kept papers, pens, her correspondence for when she was writing letters or maybe receiving them, kept them stored in here. religion was very important for mrs. grant. her father was a methodist minister. so growing up, it was important to her, and she instilled that in the children. they attended a methodist church here in galena. the pew they used is still marked at the church that it was the grant family pew.
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over in the guestbook, we have a bible given to mrs. grant by the applicable church -- the episcopal church in 1888. this is the room where she would come into get ready in the morning, get ready and evening, get ready ready for bed, and just to come in, maybe get a little solitude from everybody in the house. we have a lot of personal things in here that belong to mrs. grant paired we have her sewing kit that she probably would have used to mend socks for the kids or the general, so a button onto your it we have a couple pairs of her little size for shoes. and some purses that she would've used. a majority of the furnishings that we still have in the house belonged to the great family. -- the grant family. if they walk through the door today, they would recognize the house and probably feel right at home. this is where he came back after he was a military hero. histarted his military --
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political career here basically. this is where he was living when he was elected and she became first lady. this was home to them right before that. >> called the mother of the regiment by the men under her husband's command during the kindness, lucy hayes' and compassion endeared her to many. >> her children were extremely important to her. she and her husband had eight children, five of them lived to adulthood. we know from diaries and letters that this was kind of their gathering space. so not only is this their bedroom, but this is where they spent a lot of family time together. this room is also very important to lucy as a mother because this is where her eighth child was born. he was the only one of the eight children to be born here. tragically, he was never a very healthy child, and when he was about 18 months old, he actually contracted dysentery,
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so he passed away, which was something that was furry hard on the family. was very hard on the family. this is her sewing machine. this is what she took with her when she was in camp with her husband during the civil war. it was very important to her that she be with him as often as was practical. she was travel with him and rode him diaries and letters how important it was for her to be with him. she wase that concerned about the men in the regiment. she took this with her. she would do some sowing and demand uniforms. sewing and mend uniforms. she made elegant dresses. one of the things that is kind of interesting that we know occurred in this pace -- this
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place, they would write about these in her diary entries. they would have christmases. they would come in here and open their presents. the whole family would gather in here. they had very simple presents, not a lot. this is the space where they would do that. a lot of tradition happened in here as well as day today activities with the families during -- day to day activities with the family. you can see vibrant blue colors in here. here in their bedroom, that same color scheme is reflected in here. we know that lucy liked the color blue. byknow that as evidenced this painting here. and when reupholstering the family -- the furniture in here, we found color swatches of the original fabric embedded within these pieces of furniture. so this is the bedroom of
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rutherford and lucy's only daughter. she was named after the president's much beloved sister. this is a painting of fanny with her father. she was one of the only daughters. she was the president and lucy 's only daughter. you can imagine a little girl growing up in a house like this with a lot of brothers. even though her parents claim that she was not the favorites, she had this furniture specially made for her, she had one of the bigger bedrooms, so she certainly was the darling to her mother and her father. books ande love of knowledge, lucretia garfield created a learning environment for the family, and later established the prelude to a presidential library. >> this is the popular -- the parlor. this is the way it looked during the 1880 campaign. al parlor andforme family room. james and lucretia spent a lot of time with their children.
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--y both adore their cherubs their children very much. they had lost two children to and secured they'll children died before the family moved here. james and lucretia's five children all had the benefit having to very intelligent parents who strongly believed in education. they felt that education was an emancipating factor, and that led to the key to success. there children took dance lessons, piano lessons. was ae molly's p&o, which gift to her on her 13th birthday in 1880. she practiced the piano, and that was the reward. here in the family parlor, like almost every room in the house, you see a lot of books. books were very important to james and lucretia. some of their favorite authors were dickens. and also william shakespeare.
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the family would sit by the fireplace and read to one another, often times out light -- out loud in the evening. that was one of their favorite activities. we are here in the family dining room. in the center of the table is a very interesting art piece. it won an award at the philadelphia centennial. mrs. garfield absolutely adored her time at the exhibition. 10th,sited all of the the art tents, the science tends, the technology tents, but she was interested in a be finest technologies of the day. she would write pages and pages of what she saw at the site. a lot of people think of mrs. garfield of this very artistic lady. ,he was also very intelligent loved the sciences. like most families, dinnertime was a very important time of the day, any time for them all to be together and talk about what
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they were all doing. the garfield also would use this ,ime to educate the children play games with the children. sometimes garfield would bring a book to the table, which were often times mispronounced or misspelled, and quit the children. james and lucretia made everything an educational experience. >> first lady, influence and image. our series is available on c- span, c-span radio, and online at c-span.org/firstladies. >> she makes the first speech by sitting first lady, becomes the first resident of the daughters of american resolution, designed her own china, and establishes the white house china collection. and is the first to have a christmas tree in the white house. meet caroline harrison, wife of the 23rd president benjamin harrison, as we continue our series on first ladies with your questions and comments.
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monday night, live and on :00 eastern on c-span, c-span3, c- span radio, and c-span.org. c-span, created by america's cable companies in 1979, brought to you as a public service by your service provider. >> today on c-span, more of this years commencement speeches. first, fbi director robert mueller, followed by denver ben -- followed by bernanke. then governor martin o'malley and governor rick scott. >> robert mueller travel to deliver at this year's robertement address.
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gates is the chancellor of william and mary and introduce the at guy jerked her. mr. mueller has been jerked her for 24 years. 24 years.ctor for this is about 25 minutes. [applause] >> thank you, president reevly. i have to say here at the outset there are two disadvances to being chancellor of the college. one, i get to march in behind a seven-foot tall rector. [laughter] >> and the other is the regalia. [laughter] >> which i've described as a unique blending of academic,
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medieval academic tradition, and lady gaga. [laughter] [applause] >> as someone that serves as a university president, i know very well the stresses and demands of the position. so take it from me that we are fortunate that your president took the job five years ago under difficult circumstances and agreed to re-enlist last year. [cheers and applause] >> to the class of 2013, having passed the last exam, turned in the last paper, and paid the last parking ticket -- [laughter] >> -- you have now survived one
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of the most rigorous educational experiences in the world. well done. [applause] >> in doing so, you've had the experience not only of a first-rate academic education, but the very special opportunity to be part of an institution rooted in the earliest history and fundamental governing principles of the united states. it is impossible to be a student here and not feel the weight of the history. i did walking the grounds more than 50 years ago. i hope that you, as i did then, also feel the weight of the responsibility as well. as a graduate of one of the world's premier colleges and universities, and as a citizen of this country, there's probably no greater living example of this principle and its associated virtues, burdens, and rewards than the man we honor and hear from next, robert mueller. now i choose my words carefully. it is never a good thing to get on the wrong side of the fbi
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director. [laughter] >> legend has it that jay edgar hoover had a rule that all fbi memorandum must have large margins to allow room for notations. after reading the document, he wrote watch the borders. his subordinates sent several agents to mexico and canada. he had simply been referring to the margins. they did not ask for clarification. i have known and worked with bob mueller for more than a decades. i was at texas a & m when in the
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wake of the september 11 attacked, he reached out to find more effective ways to conduct investigations while respecting privacies and principles of academic freedom. under president obama we shared the experience of being holdovers from the previous administration that kept being asked to stay on, on, and on, and on some more. he has foregod comfortable and lucrative avenues in order to serve his country. as a graduate of princeton, nyu, and the university of virginia, he did something quite unusual for privileged young men: volunteer for military service at the height of the vietnam war. to sign up for the marine corps and lead a platoon in combat took uncommon courage and patriotism. to be a united states marine with a name like robert mueller iii took toughness too. it is telling after two successful decades as a lawyer, bob gave up a partnership and a law firm to work in the criminal division of the u.s. attorneys office in washington, d.c.
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in addition to absorbing what had to be a massive pay cut, bob also agreed to a position with considerably less rank, power, and prestige from the one he held in the justice department a few years earlier. at the time, too many young men were dying and being killed in the streets of the nation's capitol. bob mueller was determined to do something about it. as we know after a few days on the job as fbi director, he was confronted with the horror of 9/11. i know from experience how hard it is to reorient the mission and transform the culture of large-crowd, historically-successful institutions. on september 12, 2001, no one would have predicted america would go more than a decade without another attack. it is enormous credit to bob
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mueller, and the men and women he leads at the fbi. his life has been one of truly splendid service. we're honored to have him as a 2013 commencement speaker. ladies and gentlemen, the honorable robert mueller. [applause] [applause] >> well, thank you for that very kind introduction, lady gaga. you have not heard the last of that. [laughter] >> it's a pleasure for me to be here and be given the opportunity to recruit for the fbi. [laughter] >> i will say it is a tremendous honor to join the graduates today as they move on in their lives. as i look out at you, i'm
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reminded of my youngest daughter's graduation from college a number of years ago. comedian bill cosby delivered the commencement address. he said the commencement was as much for the parents as for the graduates. today's parents are not only filled with pride, but with a newfound sense of freedom. [applause] >> cosby went on to joke as he drove home from his own daughter's commencement, his daughter following in her car, one thought kept running through his mind. why are you still here? coming back to my house? as college graduates, cosby said you have hopes and dreams.
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as parents, we too have hopes and dreams. and that part about moving home, not always part of our dream. but as i reflect upon where i have come since i myself graduated, i will say that i never would have expected to end up where i have. and i consider myself most fortunate to have been given the opportunities i've had over the past 30 years with personally and professionally -- i have been blessed with three families. my family, my wife and her two daughters, my marine corps family, and for the past 11 years, my fbi family. for each of these families, i have learned a number of life lessons. one lesson is much of what you do impacts those around you, and in turn, those around you shape your life in a number of ways. today i want to touch on three lessons learned through these relationships. these lessons relate to -- first
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to integrity, second to service, and third as to patience, as well as its corollary, humility. my mistakes may strike accord with you. i begin with integrity. it is so essential to who and what you ultimately will become. many of you have a career path in mind. many of you have no idea where you will end up. a few of you may be surprised by where life takes you. i certainly was. and in the end, it is not only what we do, but how we do it. regardless of your chosen career, you are only as good as your word. you can be smart, aggressive, articulate, and indeed persuasive. if you are not honest, your reputation will suffer.
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once lost, a good reputation can never be regained. as a saying goes, if you have integrity, nothing else matters. and if you don't have integrity, nothing else matters. the fbi's motto is fidelity, bravery, and integrity. for the men and women of the bureau, integrity, both personal and institutional is the core value. that same integrity is a hallmark of this institution. william and mary was the first college in the country to have a student-run honor system. that honor system and the community of trust enables rest on one precept. that's integrity. your professional and personal success will rest on the same precept. there will come a time when you
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are will be tested. you may find yourself standing alone against those you thought were trusted colleagues. you may stand to lose what you have worked for, and the decision will not be an easy call. but surely william and mary has prepared you for just such a test. indeed, your own thomas jefferson believed that william and mary was the finest schools of manners and morals that ever existed in america. and as graduates, as graduates you are charged with upholding this legacy of honesty and integrity. today you become the standard bareers. turning to the importance of public service or service over self, i can say i did not really choose public service, but fell into it early on, perhaps not fully appreciating the
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challenges of such service. when you come to understand the importance of service over self in a myriad of ways through volunteerism, through commitment to a particular cause or perhaps by example. as an undergraduate, i had one of the finest role models i could have asked for in david hackett. he was on the lacrosse team. he was not necessarily the best, but he was determined and a natural leader. he graduated later that spring. a year later as we were graduating, we faced the decision at how to respond to the war in vietnam. we knew that david was in vietnam serving in the marine corps as a commander. in the spring of 1967, he volunteered for a second tour of duty.
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as he led his men, david was killed by a snipers bullet just south of the dmz. now one would have thought that the life of a marine and david's death in vietnam would argue strongly against following in his foot steps. but many of us saw in him the person we wanted to be. he was a leader and a role model on the fields of princeton. he was a leader and a role model on the fields of battle as well. and a number of his friends and teammates joined the marine corps, because of him as did i. i consider myself fortunate to have survived the tour in vietnam. there were many men, such as
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david hackett, who did not. perhaps because of that, i've always felt compelled to try to give back in some way. i have, indeed, been lucky to spend the better part of my professional life in public service and to benefit from the intangible rewards that come from such service. the lessons i learned as a marine have stayed with me for more than 40 years. the value of team work, sacrifice, discipline, life lessons i could have learned in quite the same way elsewhere. when i look back on my career, i think of having the opportunity to participate in major investigations, work with homicide detectives shoulder to shoulder in washington, d.c., and be able to work with one of the finest institutions in the world for the last 11 years, the fbi. i will say these opportunities would have been difficult to replicate in the private sector. as for me, i can say it has been time well spent.
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since its earliest days, the college of william and mary has emphasized service over self. your fellow alumni has served as the nation's highest political officers, attorneys, judges, teachers, doctors, and civic and military leaders. the way in which you choose to serve does not really matter. only that you work to better your country and your community. each of you must determine in what way you can best serve others. a way that will leave you believing that your time has been time well spent. turning to the lessons on patience, johnson writes he wants to find patience as the ability to idol your motor when you feel like stripping your gears. for those of us that are not inherently patient, it is an acquired trait. believe me, it is hard earned.
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people will say i am still learning. it is also fair to say that true patience is required at precisely the moment you least have time for it. patience includes the ability to really listen to others, and especially to listen to those close to you. this is not always particularly easy. one of my first positions with the department of justice more than 30 years ago, i found myself head of the criminal division in the u.s. attorney's office in boston. i soon realized that lawyers would come to my office for one of two reasons. see or be seen on the one hand, or to obtain a decision on some aspect of their work on the
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other hand. and i quickly fell into the habit of asking the same question whenever someone appeared at my door. that question was: what is the issue? a word of advice. this question is not conducive to married life. [laughter] >> one evening i came home to my wife who had had a long day teaching. then coping with our two young daughters. she began to describe her day to me. after just a few moments, i interpreted and asked what is the issue? and the response, as i should
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have anticipated, was immediate. i am your wife. she said. i am not one of your attorneys. do not ever ask me what is the issue. you will sit there and you will listen until i am finished. [cheers and applause] >> it's a story for mother's day. [laughter] >> but that night i did learn the importance of listening to those around you, truly listening, before making judgment and taking action. i'd also learned to use that question sparingly, and never, ever, my wife. now humility is a closely related trait. closely related to patience. there are those who are naturally humble. but for others, humility may come from life experience. it is a result of facing challenges, making mistakes, and overcoming obstacles. i would like to close with a story about one of your own. lee rolls was an adjunct profession here at william and mary for more than 18 year. he taught a seminar entitled congress, executive, and public
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policy focused on the time he had spent on the hill. lee was naturally humble. he was always the smartest person in the room. he was the last one who would ever tout it. lee and i were college classmates. we served together in a previous administration. when i became director of the fbi, i asked him to join me as a close advisor, and remarkably he agreed. lee knew how to cut to the nonsense and get to the heart of the matter, better than anyone i've ever known. he knew how to put me in my place. during one particularly heated meeting, everyone was frustrated.
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mostly with me. i confess, i myself, may well have been a wee bit impatient and ill tempered. lee sat silently, and then posed the following question out of the blue. what is the difference between the director of the fbi and a four-year-old child? the room grew hushed. finally he said height. on those days when we were under attack by the news media, being clobbered by congress, and when the attorney general was not at all happy with me, i'd walk down to lee's office hoping for a sympathetic ear. i would ask how are we doing? lee would shake his head and
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say, you're toast, you're dead meat, you're history. it would continue and say don't take yourself too seriously. because no one else around here does. it was that sense of humility, the idea that the world does not revolve around you, that was central to lee's character. he never thought to elevate his own status, to the contrary, he thought to elevate those around him. as you grow older, you will understand that ones life is a combination of experiences and teachings of those that become your mentors. lee was a mentor for me. i'm a better person having the opportunity to be tutored by him. he passed away two years ago. he's greatly missed. his was a life of humility, service, a model for many others for you as well as myself. i encourage each of you to surround yourselves with such mentors over the coming years. individuals who will make you smarter and better. those who will recognize your potential and challenge you in new ways.
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and one day, unwittingly, you will serve as a mentor to someone in your life. i ask you to remember patient and humility both are hard to come by. each will serve you well. the lessons i speak of today are lessons not only for you, but for all of us. we must all find ways to contribute to something bigger than ourselves. we must cultivate patience each day. we must maintain a sense of humility, and most importantly, we must never ever sacrifice our integrity. if we do each of these things, we'll have the best opportunity to be successful personally and professionally and our time will, indeed, have been time well spent. thank you for inviting me to celebrate with you today. god bless each and every one of you throughout your careers. [cheers and applause] [cheers and applause]
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[captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> federal reserve board chairman, ben bernanke, gave this year's commencement address at bard rock college. mr. bernanke's son graduated from this college in 2006. this is 15 minutes. [applause] >> thank you very much. good morning. thank you so the president. congratulations on finally earning your b.a. >> thank you. >> let me also congratulate the graduates and their parents. the word graduate comes from the latin word for step.
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graduation from college is only one step on a journey. it is a step well worth celebrating, notwithstanding the aversion to ceremonies. i think everybody here appreciates what a special privilege that each of you have enjoyed in attending a unique institution like simon's rock. it is the only early college in the united states to my knowledge. many of you came here after the 10 and 11 grade with a search of experience. i'm sure each one has felt part of a community. you created a curriculum that emphasizes creativity, habits of mind which i'm sure will stay with you. what's so important about
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creativity and independent critical thinking? there are many answers. i'm an economist. i'll talk about the economic future -- or your economic future. each of you will have many years to contribute and benefit from a global economy. my emphasis today will be on prospects for the long run. in particular, i'll be looking beyond the very real challenges of the economic recovery that we face today. challenges that i have every
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confidence that we'll overcome to speak for a change about economic growth as measured in decades, not months or quarters. many factors affect the development of the economy, notably among them a nation's economic and political institutions. over long periods, probably the most important factor is the face of scientific and technical progress. between the days of the empire and the russia revolution in europe changed little from generation to generation. for centuries, many, if not most, produced most of what they and their family consumed and never traveled very far from where they were borne. by the mid 1700's, technical knowledge was finding uses. since then the world has experienced three major waves of technological application and innovation. the first wave drove the growth of the industrial era, 1700-mid 1800. this saw steam engines, cotton spinning machines, and railroads. they introduced mechanism, specialization, and mass production. they fundamentally changed how
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and where goods were produced and increased the productivity of workers and reduced the cost of basic consumer goods. the second extended wave of invention lasted from the mid 1800-well after the years of world war ii. this era featured multiple innovations that changed everyday life, such as indoor plumbing, the hardest thing of electricity for use in homes and factory, the combustion engine, antibiotics, power flight, radio, television, and many more. the third era, whose roots go back to the 1940's, but began to enter the popular consciousness in the 1980's is defined by the information technology or i.t. revolution, as well as fields like biotechnology and improvements in computing helped to make possible. the i.t. revolution is still
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ongoing and shaping our world today. here's a question. a key question i imagine from your perspective. what is the future hold for the working lives of today's graduates? the economic implications from the steam engine to the boeing 747 were enormous. they expanded the range of available products and the efficiency which they could be produced. according to the best available data, output increased by approximately 30 times between 1700 and 1970 or so. growth that has resulted in multiple changes in our society and economy. history suggests that economic prospects during the coming decades depend on whether the most recent revolution, the i.t. revolution, has economic affects of similar scale and scope as the previous two. but will it? well, i have to report here that not everybody thinks so. some observers have made the case that i.t. revolution, as
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important as it is, will not generate the economic effects that flowed from earlier technological revolutions. as a result, these observers argue that economic growth and change in coming decades will be notably slower than the pace to which americans have become accustom. such an outcome would have important social and political, as well as economic consequences for the country and for the world. this provocative assessment of our economic future has attracted plenty of attention among economist and from others as well. it doesn't make sense. here's one way to think more concretely about the argument that the pessimists are making. 50 years ago in 1963, i was a 9-year-old growing up in a middle class home in a small down in south carolina.
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by the way, i was the best speller in the entire state of south carolina. [laughter] >> so as a way of getting a handle on the pace of economic change, it is interesting to ask how my family's everyday life differed from that of a typical family today. if i think about it, i could quickly come up with the internet, cell phones, and ovens as important conveniences that my family lacked 50 years ago. health care has improved since i was young. life expectancy at birth in the united states has risen from seven years in 1963 to 78 years today. although some of the improvement is probably due to better nutrition and generally higher levels of income rather than advances in medicine alone. nevertheless, my memory may be selective, it doesn't seem to me that differences in daily life between then and now are all that large. heating, air conditioning, cooking, and sanitation in my childhood were not all that different.
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we had a dishwasher, washing machine, and a drier. the experience of commercial flight was much like today without the long security lines. for entertainment, we didn't have the internet or video games. we had internet and a color tv. many faces came out orange. we didn't have very many go to 1913. compare how my grandparents and your great grandparents lived to calm my family lived in 1963. life was much harder for most americans. many people work long hours in
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dangerous and dirty jobs. up to 60 hours for week -- per week. refrigerators and freezers and electric stoves and washing machines were not in general use. most urban households do not yet have electricity. in the entertainment spear, americans did not have access to commercial radio broadcasts and movies would be silent for another decade and a half. some people have telephones come but no long distance service available. in transportation, henry ford was beginning to mass production of the model t automobile. railroads were powered by steam
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and regular commercial air travel was still decades away. life expectancy in 1913 was only 53 years. it reflected the state of medical science at the time and infection and dionex and vaccines from deadly diseases would not be developed for several more decades -- and deadly -- and and i'm -- and antibiotics and vaccines from deadly diseases that would not be built for several more decades. the purpose of these comparisons makes concrete argument from some that the transformations of the past 50 years are significant to not match the changes of the previous 50 years or for that matter, the previous 100 years. extrapolating to the conclusion that some have drawn that the pace of economic growth and change can be associated with improvement in living standards will likely be slower as our most recent technological revolution and computers will not transform our lives dramatically as previous
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revolutions have. that is sort of depressing. is it true then that the future ain't what it used to be? nobody really knows. it is tough to make predictions about the future. there are some good arguments on the other side of this debate. i assure you i will take the other side. first of all, innovation id. ignition -- by definition involves ideas no one has had get. forecasts of future change and can be and often are widely wrong. human innovation and creativity will continue. it is part of our very nature. another prediction is that people will continue to forecast the end of innovation. the famous british economist observed as much in the middle of the great depression. 80 years ago he wrote, we are suffering from a bad attack of economics. it is common to hear people say
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that the epic of congress -- progress is over. the rapid improvement in the standards of life is going to slow down. it sounds familiar. keynes argued that such a view what he called economic us abilities for our grandchildren capabilities for our grandchildren good rice. income per person in the u.s. today is roughly six times what it was back then. the second counterargument is that not only are innovation itself inherently hard to predict, so are the consequences of innovation for our economy and daily lives. indeed, some would say that we are still in the early days of the i.t. revolution. computer speed and memory has
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increased many times over in the 30 plus years since the first personal computers came onto the market. it is a biotechnology are dancing rapidly. -- fields like biotechnology are advancing rapidly. the commercial applications of these technologies only scratch the surface. consider the potential for i.t. and biotechnology to improve healthcare. one of the most important sectors of our economy. it would lead to better ordination and more effective care than we have today,
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including greater responses in the latest findings. robots and lasers are improving surgical outcomes and artificial intelligence systems are being used to improve diagnoses and chart courses of treatment. perhaps even more revolutionary is a transport that would tailor medical treatment for each patient based on information drawn from that individuals genetic code. taken together, such advances would lead to another jump in life expectancy and improve health. other promising areas and application of new technologies includes the development of cleaner energy and harnessing wind and solar power and the development of electric hybrid vehicles and the potential of future advances. i cannot imagine all of the possibilities.
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we underestimate the longer term potential. finally, one more important argument. pessimists might be paying too much attention to the strength of the underlying courses that generate innovation in the modern world. invention was once the province of the isolated scientist or tinkerer. transmission of new ideas and agitation for insights for commercial uses were slow and erratic. but all of that is changing radically. we live on a planet that is becoming richer and more popular and which not only the most advanced economies, but also in emerging markets like china and india. we increasingly see their economic futures. in that context, the number of trained scientists and engineers is increasing rapidly, as are the resources for research being
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provided by universities and government and the private sector are. because of the internet collaboration takes place at high speed and little regard for distance. for example, research papers have been critiqued rather than after publication in a journal several years after they were written. importantly, as trade and globalization have increased the size of the potential market, the possible -- it is going rapidly. both humanity's capacity to innovate and incentives to innovate are greater today than in any other time in our history. well, what does this have to do with creativity and critical thinking? that is where i started. the history of innovation and development teaches us that the only constant is change. during your working lives, you
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have to reinvent yourself many times. success and satisfaction one outcome from mastering a fixed body of knowledge, but constant agitation and k2 video in a rapidly changing world. engaging with and apply new technology will be a crucial part of that. your work and the electronic show -- and the electric -- and intellectual skills you have are the best to adjust these challenges. it is important that humanity facilitates new and creative thinking and helps us draw meaning that goes beyond the material aspects of our lives. let me end by wishing you the very best in facing the difficult, but exciting challenges that like ahead. congratulations.
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[applause]this is just under 15 minutes. >> grateful and very relieved parents it is a great pleasure to be able to share this awesome day with you. i love st. mary's college. you can feel the history and sense the future as you walk these utile foregrounds.
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a century ago this place was settled in the name of religious liberty you did it. [cheers and applause] in a few moments you are going to join a very select club. in a really diddly short amount of human history, cache in a relatively short amount of human history, 86% of our worlds appellation -- population has access to a mobile phone. get this -- less than seven percent have what you are about to receive. namely, a college diploma. less than 7%. membership in this club is not free. [laughter]
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i'm not talking merely about tuition. i'm talking about something deeper. with your diploma comes a responsibility of individual leadership. in our country, every person is needed. so, we commence. our world is changing rapidly. globally cap nominate -- global economic issues and global poverty and global migration and global climate change and global warfare. in your lifetime, the population of our planet will nearly double. the scientists of our world are certain that we are on the verge of burning up the atmosphere of our planet. anyone who tries to tell you that these challenges are not real is either uninformed or simply not being honest with you.
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after the same time, anyone who ignores the millions of reasons for optimism in this world simply does not have their eyes open. these things are not happening to us. they are happening for us. life is an evolving story of change and choice. every challenge holds the seat of opportunity. adversity is not our enemy. is the catalyst. these are some of the most exciting times to be a live. think about it.
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in that release of instant of human time, we have gone from manned flight to man walking on the moon. from the human vaccine to the human genome. from the telegraph today internet. at this point of this, always is the effort and imagination it will of individual human spirit. we consider the story of peter burns from emery county. [cheers and applause] -- from a summary county. -- montgomery county. [cheers and applause] his spirit knows no limits. his dad moved the family near campus. together they have attended classes. they have cheered on the seahawks. they have participated in campus life together. he graduates with honors.
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[cheers and applause] there's also the story of britney davis. [cheers and applause] britney lost her father at a young age. her mom had to work hard to support her and each of her five siblings. she had big dreams for her daughter. expectations become behavior. the transition to st. mary's was challenging. there have been starts and stops. there have been struggles and breakthroughs. but she returned to st. mary's. britney davis will be the first member of her family to receive a college diploma. [cheers and applause] these individual stories, these two, these individual stories are also maryland's story.
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it is a story of each and every one of you. maryland history and future. we have been placed at the center and the forefront called the american revolution. it is not over. it is ongoing. today it is a revolution of science and technology and healing and discovery and innovation. for the second year in a row, the u.s. chamber of commerce last week named your state the number one state in america for innovation and entrepreneurship. [applause] in labs and classrooms all across the state, mary landers
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are revolutionizing the way we see it and fuel our planet. to the discovery taking place, the applied physics lab, the curious and the healing being developed, nih of homes being built confederate, the life sciences, clean tech, green tech, information technology, cybersecurity, space, it aerospace, global trade. our challenges are big and so must our leadership and compassion for one another. innovation is the key. innovation in science and technology and art and music. innovation that only in such uncritical thinking, the sort of thinking the have learned here will bring about. innovation that creates job plans for improving the delivery
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and accelerating the delivery of higher education and better skills for all of our people. the job for creating innovations that improve the health and security of our people. and innovation that creates jobs and green design. the job creating innovation that is necessary to save humanity from the devastation of climate change. innovation born of a deeper understanding of a relationship
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between our relationships. there is a deeper understanding of the system upon which all life depends. the question of 2013 is not whether we move left or right, but whether we move forward or back. no citizen has the option of escaping the answer. good intentions are important, but good intentions are insufficient. a new mindset is required for the new action that our world requires. and we were organizing. this is true in business and in government and in every sector and nonprofit sectors. more open and more transparent. anyway that is more effect is even as it becomes more personalized. you are among the firstborn of
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the new information age. people are becoming more powerful than their governments. to becoming interconnected. they are becoming better informed. you are graduating today at the threshold of a new era of american progress. at your fingertips are a rising standard of living and better educated children and more affordable college and the more highly skilled american workforce and safer neighborhoods and a safer and more resilient homeland and help your -- help your people and a more sustainable living if you choose to make it so. achieving this progress will require a different kind of leadership and the requested from each and everyone you. your parents grew up in a time
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when leadership was ideological. it was bureaucratic. this new information age calls for a different way. it calls for leadership. leadership that is collaborative. leadership that is accountable and relentlessly interactive. leadership that creates a common platforms. leaders that are willing to have open-source information order to unlock the information needed on a massive scale. leadership that understands the power of human dignity and the strength of our diversity. i leave you with this prayer. made a gift of leadership away can you as a vocation. keep you in mind of the providence that cause you to serve. mayor imagination continue --
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may your imagination continue. may your work be infused with passion and creativity and have the wisdom to balance compassion and challenge. the source that will guide and bless your work. congratulations. >> she becomes the first president of the daughter of the revolution and establishes the white house/china collection and is the first to have a christmas tree in the white house. meet caroline harrison, wife of the 23rd president as we continue our series on first ladies.
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>> more of this year's commencement speeches. from rick scott. then attorney general eric holder at the university of california berkeley law school. later, the first selectman of new turn -- newtown, connecticut. >> early this month, rick scott deliver the commencement address at ava maria university. governor scott is serving his first term in office. this is under 15 minutes. [applause] >> thank you for that
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introduction. it is wonderful to be back home. this is a great year for my wife and i. we had our 41st anniversary a week ago. we will have to mourn grandkids this year. -- we will have two more grandkids this year. nothing better than that. [applause] it is an honor to be here. congratulations to every graduate. a great journey -- you have got a great journey. you will have a great time. i love these speeches. this speech is one of the only few things that is standing in the way of where you are now. you have a great hearty with your family and friends once we get finished. in the words of my pastor, i cannot promise you i will be interesting, but i guarantee you i will be short. my goal is to get you to your celebration on time.
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i thought a lot about this beach. instead of reading long passages from history or literature, i went to share with you a few things. the few things i would myself if i were in your place today. as a father and grandfather, these are some lessons it to me almost a lifetime to learn. number 10, family is sacred. [applause] my mom almost gave me up for adoption when she was born because she was going through a diverse from my -- divorce from my birth father. she may mired that she remarried. they had a difficult time supporting us five kids. -- she remarried.
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they had a difficult time supporting us five kids. my mom had many challenges and struggles, but she taught me to be fearless. never give up. i could accomplish anything. be an optimist even when times are hard. as you graduate to date, -- today, keep your family close. thank your mom and your dad and everyone else who helped you get to where you are today. there will be a day when you cannot check in with your mom and dad anymore. make your family a priority come even if they end up far away.
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they will influence your life for the better if you let them. number nine, your body is the only one you get. my father was a world war ii veteran that survived the invasion and was a prisoner of war. he had a six grade education. he never thought he would come back alive. he came back alive. for a long time, he smoked too much and drink too much and 82 much -- ate too much. he had surgery and they told him he could not smoke. he quit smoking immediately. he had a beer every saturday night. he saved up. it is true. my mom was furious. growing up with him, i saw how important health was by learning what not to do.
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trust me, you have your body until you die. there is no trade-ins are upgrades along the way. treasure your help. you always hear to make money in some way. read a money-management book. save a portion of every paycheck no matter how small. stay out of debt. after getting a great education, invest in yourself by understanding the best way to manage your money. so you can give more back to the school, right? [laughter] jim did not but that any speech, by the way. number seven, it is important to take stock of what you must have in your life.
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what do you treasure? as the bible says, for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. what do you treasure today? is it making $1 million? is it about having that job you have been dreaming about? living in a house are getting married and having children? take stock of your heart and look at what dream you may have there is only one thing worth so much focus, devotion, time and attention. and that is god. the job and the money and the success, no matter how much it is, it will never really satisfy. god designed our hearts to find rest only in his presence. number six, enjoy the journey. i once heard someone say that when you know where you came
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from and know where you're going, it is easy to enjoy the journey along the way. as a child of god, i know where i am from and where i will be returned. knowing that frees me up to enjoy all of the ups and downs along the way. try the impossible. follow your dreams. i have learned from both. thankfully, god only gives us one day at a time. when you decide to enjoy each day as it comes, you're guaranteed to have much more fun along the way. number five, build relationships. a growth of every great company starts with two people. relationships matter. people need to be valued.
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the number one motivator of your team will not be your salary, but how you are appreciated. there is a book how to win friends and influence people. everyone wants to be loved. make everyone around you feel special. be respectful of everyone. love with all of your heart. you will live longer. you will have more friends. you will be happier. you'll be much more successful in your chosen profession. you will enjoy your life much more. take time to appreciate those around you. you cannot do anything truly great by yourself.
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great by yourself. while bullies often win in the short term, win-win relationships wherein in the long-term. build relationships every day. number four, travel the world. i have been to all seven continents. i've been to almost 50 countries. there are wonderful people in places all over the world. travel everywhere. number three, trust. the truth is, the world is a scary, unfair place. bad things happen to good people. dreams do not always come true. sometimes life breaks your heart. in a world like this, the logical thing to do is to shut down and close up. do everything on your own and do not depend on anyone. but trust is one of the most powerful of all human actions. trust is a foundation of great friendships and wonderful marriages and selfless parents a great company.
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let people enter your life. share with others knowing that you will be disappointed at provides one of the greatest senses of joy in an often senseless world. number two, take risk. when you're 80 years old, you want to look back and know that you tried stuff. i tell my daughters to make as many mistakes as i have made in my life. those mistakes were clearly the precursors of future success. when i'm 80, my prayers are i will still be married to the amazing person i married at 19.
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i will have great relationship with my daughters and son-in- laws, and by the way, son-in- laws improve when you have grandchildren. i like them a lot more this year. [laughter] my grandchildren and a few friends. i want to say that i tried a lot of things with no regrets. change the world a little bit for the better. don't live in fear. don't worry what people might say or think about you. take the shot. number one, forgive. if you're going to be in a family and value relationships and trust people and enjoy the journey even when you make mistakes -- and you will make mistakes along the way -- you will need forgiveness. forgiveness is a complicated word. who decides when to forgive and what to forgive and how to forgive? i do not have all the answers. i know we are called to forgive as god forgave.
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an incredible standard. forgiveness is supernatural. it requires practice. if there is one thing i hope you will remember from this list today is the challenge -- value your family, your friends, and all the wonderful people you meet along the way. they won't be perfect and neither will you. they will need forgiveness just like me and you. if you accept this challenge, it will be easy to have fun and you will love the journey that god gave us this opportunity. god bless every one of you. thank you for the opportunity. [applause]
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>> attorney general eric holder give the commencement at the university of california in mid- may. his remarks are about 25 minutes. [applause] >> good afternoon, or good morning, i guess. and thank you, dean headley, for those kind words. and thank you for such a warm welcome. beijingue -- i am a extraction. it is the place of you have the best beaches in the caribbean and the best rom in the history
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of the world. how many of you have had it? yeah, mon. it is a privilege to -- huh? it is a privilege to join all of you today. professor murray, that a whole best looking attorney general is starting to get on my nerves. [laughter] friend, but good you know, we're going to have to on this. mano they want to be a contest of some sort. two distinguished members of the faculty, staff, administration, and so many proud parents, family members, toends, and alumni, i want join in congratulating the class of 2013 and celebrating the achievements that have defined your time here at berkeley law school. i would particularly like to javier,bby or -- thank
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and that is a great mustache. [applause] men who have mustaches are people of depth. [laughter] , coolness, and great beauty. i would also like to thank kate and aaron for their thoughtful remarks. given all the that they did, didn't have have time to study? apparently they did. i would like to thank them and all of their fellow student leaders who have done to make today's ceremony so special. it is really an honor for me to share the stage with you all this morning and a pleasure to be among the first to welcome you and your classmates into the legal profession. i would also like to thank the musicians who are with us, especially of the person with west indian roots, those talented steel done -- steel drum players.
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, i think,g to set and appropriately formal tone for this important ceremony. it reminds me of so much what i did in columbia in new york. [laughter] not really. those type a competitive sites, they are at columbia. most of all, i would like to thank the class of 2013 for inviting me to share in this moment as we mark the end of legal training and beginning of your stewardship of our nation's justice system. this is an occasion you have been working toward and waiting for for three long years. , each of few moments you will accept a diploma signifying your graduation from one of the most prestigious law schools in the united states of america. you will take your leave of this campus on the remarkable community of learning that you have come to call home.
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you will say goodbye to friends that you have made and professors that you will never forget. and you will fan out around the state of california, throughout the country, and even across the world. seeking to make a living, striving to make your mark, and andring in every industry field of endeavor to improve our country, to make more peaceful the world written by ms. given and despair -- by misgiving and despair, to build a brighter future that the world deserves, and the promise that is woven throughout your legal education and now must become your common cause. the promise of equal justice under law. [cheers and applause] of course, i realize that these challenges might seem distant or even abstract as we gather on this beautiful morning to celebrate your commencement.
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after all, your memories of final exams are still fresh, and you may have good reason to focus on more immediate concerns, although job opportunities, looming life decisions, and studying for the bar exam. anay's ceremony marks important milestone, and i understand that as we reflect on the achievements that have led you to this point, the last thing you might want to think about is accepting a new mantle of responsibility. but today, today of all days, that is precisely what you must do. your journey of service to the law and to all to whom it protects and if ours is really just beginning. although the future you face is far from certain, each of you has been given a rare chance to make a meaningful difference. uncertain times give birth to unique opportunities to affect positive change.
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as i look around this crowd of bright, young faces, i cannot help but feel confident that you are ready and that you are exactly prepared to do that. class of 2013 has come a long way since you arrived in berkeley in 2010. from 27 countries, 100 13 undergraduate institutions, 77 different majors, and a wide array of- a wide religious and ethnic backgrounds. your diversity sets you apart. and as diversity always does, provided the opportunity for tremendous individual interaction and enhance institutional strength. asr previous achievements scientists, journalists, athletes, parents, military veterans, public service, musicians, and artists, are very impressive. and your potential is now really without limits. you have come together and form lasting bonds of friendship and of fellowship. you have taken part of the same
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rituals and rites of passage from thursday night bar review that have been familiar to berkeley law students for years. you've helped to strengthen and extend the tradition of collegiality and collaboration that has always made this institution such a remarkable place. you have already begun to make a difference and have a positive impact far beyond this beautiful campus. from protesting tuition increases across the state to rallying support for same-sex marriage. [cheers and applause] you have raise your voices on some of the most pressing issues facing your peers and your fellow citizens. from human trafficking to domestic violence, you have gained hands-on experience, combated heinous crimes, providing assistance to victims, and navigating the complicity
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-- the complexities of our legal system. you proven your commitment to justice and the highest ideals of public service by logging more than 18,000 i'll -- hours of pro bono work and changing the lives of clients at one of berkeley's most nationally recognized claims. you have a gun all while coping with the academic rigors that come with a world-class legal education and taking some time to relax and enjoy student life during wine bus trips to napa valley. did that really happen? [cheers and applause] i really went to the wrong law school. [laughter] -- weeklyrigley gatherings for the wednesday warriors. [cheers and applause] so that is that group over there. [laughter] ,fter all, as the saying goes you are only there one-time. guess what, today, this chapter
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draws to a close. [laughter] but these experiences will stay with you. they will continuously guide your actions and form your choices and shape your path forward. future you envision a prosecuting dangerous criminals, defending the accused, ruling from the bench, campaigning for elected office, leading a corporation, running a nonprofit, or charting some course altogether your own, before you know it, you will find yourselves in positions of responsibility in all sectors of society. withill be entrusted honoring and preserving the values that you learned right here, and building on the rich tradition of service and advocacy that your predecessors have established. , who in 1920adams begin the first woman to serve in the united states department of justice as an assistant attorney general to achieve
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justice war and the great civil john doerr to a great lawyer and former solicitor general ted olson. over the last century, bjork -- berkeley law alumni have done nothing less than shape and reshape the world in which we live. as we speak, berkeley graduates are continuing this work at every level of government and across today's united states department of justice, including in my justice where margaret richardson, class of 2000 three, serves as my chief of staff and trusted advisor. -- class of 2003. [cheers and applause] , i was told when she graduated, never received her diploma for some reason. [laughter] you up,ing to hook margaret. we're going to to get your
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diploma. thank you to these dedicated leaders and countless others who have spoken out, who have sacrificed, and who have organized in order to advance the singular promise that unites us this morning. today we live in america that our forbearers could only dream about. before these talented men and women were providing critical leadership to our nation's legal community, every one of them that were use it today. each in their own way was called upon to confront the novel legal questions of their time. and starting this moment, graduates, it is your turn. it is your chance to help realize your vision of a better world. it is your obligation to move our nation confidently into the future, no matter what that future might bring. it is your solemn responsibility and your humbling opportunity to act with optimism.
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with abiding faith in your cells and with one another. not merely to serve clients or to win cases to assure in every case, in every community, and in every circumstance that justice is done. 's earliestountry days, the american legal community has risen to this challenge. but you are about to embark on your legal career. you are at a crossroads in history as our nation confronts grave obstacles and national security threats that demand our constant vigilance and steadfast commitment. how we respond to such adversity as leaders, as lawyers, and as americans, represents a defining issue of our time. as we reflect upon these threats this morning, each of you must consider some
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important questions -- how can we uphold the values and remain true to the highest ideals of our legal system while keeping pace with the 21st-century threats? wet ways can we or should adapt and adjust the system consistent with our finest legal traditions? above all, how can we be nimble in our pursuit of justice without sacrificing our dedication to our values and the rule of law? none of these questions are rhetorical. their answers are being debated every day. at world-n seminars class and decisions this but in the executive branch in halls of congress as well. especially since last month's horrific attack at the boston marathon, the urgency of this discussion has come once again into sharp focus. and emotionally charged issues of printable and procedures have been brought back into the national
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spotlight. the importance of finding the right answers will be difficult to oversee. it is in such moments of difficulty and crisis when cases are most shocking, emotions are running high, and fear is at a fever pitch, that our legal system and all who serve it are truly put to the maximumd times of danger, we must always restrain the impulse to implement that which we might think to be effective, but indeed is surely inconsistent with our treasured values. [applause] important to remember in these trying times that nothing can be taken for granted. positive outcomes are not preordained. as history teaches us, our great country does not always get it right. in 1942, just months after the ,ombing at pearl harbor
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110,000 japanese americans were removed from their homes in california and throughout the pacific coast. many were transported to war relocation camps and -- and isolated areas. more than 60% -- 60% of the interns were american citizens. a deeply misguided ruling, the united states supreme court held that this exclusive process passed constitutional muster. more recently, in the aftermath of 9/11, as our nation's struggle to cope with an unprecedented tragedy and to respond to a new kind of threats, fear and uncertainty drove us in certain cases to abandon our values in pursuit of information about those who would do us harm. we used techniques that were of questionable effectiveness.
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[applause] -- in bringing suspect this bringing suspected terrorists to justice, some question and continued to question the effectiveness of our federal civilian court system. members of congress placed unwise and unwarranted researches on where certain detainees could be house, charged, and prosecuted. in short, many lost face with our founding documents and our time-tested effective institutions. in the wake of the boston marathon bombing, many of the tired and meritless political arguments and renewed calls to abandon the use of civilian courts in britain dealing with terrorism-related are being made yet again.
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every graduate in this crowd today must renew your commitment to standing firm. in the face of manufactured controversy and overheated partisan rhetoric to uphold most sacred values. [cheers and applause] let me be very clear -- those who claim that our federal courts are incapable of handling terrorism cases are not registering a dissenting opinion. they are simply wrong. there assertions --[cheers and applause] .here assertions ignore reality and attempting to limit the use of these courts would weaken our ability and capacity to punish those who target our people and attempt to terrorize our communities. throughout history, our federal courts have proven to be an
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unparalleled instrument for bringing terrorists to justice. they have enabled us to convict scores of people of terrorism- related offenses since september the 11th. hundreds are properly, safely secured, held in our federal presence, and not in guantanamo today. not one has ever escaped custody. no judicial district has ever suffered a retaliatory attack of any kind. no other have demonstrated such a robust ability to stop terrorists and to collect intelligence over a diverse range of circumstances. i defy anyone on the merits to challenge these assertions. and our legacy to future generations clearly demand that we maintain full faith and confidence in a court system that has distinguished
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this the nation for more than two centuries. our security demand that as well. because prosecuting terrorists in federal court is not just consistent with our values, it is extraordinarily effective. the article system is both strong and fair and has long been seen as legitimate around the world. setting this country apart, differentiating us from other nations, and serving as a model for others to envy into any late. come what may, we must never cede our freedoms nor feel that there is a tension between them and our ability to keep safe. especially in moments of crisis when we are under attack or faced with difficulty and danger. , musttions, your actions be grounded in the bedrock.
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they must be rooted not only in traditionst legal but also our highest ideals. at the same time, we must never be afraid to engage in a robust, responsible dialogue in dealing with new challenges. we need to provide law enforcement with the tools necessary for grab during vital intelligence, keeping pace with rapidly changing threats, and protecting public safety all want -- all while safeguarding individual rights to his due process are just as surely as we war.oday a nation is at we must also remain a nation of laws. with all that you possess and all the you have been given, every member of the class of 2013 has a special responsibility to help us meet these challenges and keep advancing our uniquely american pursuit of a safer, more just, and more perfect union.
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i am encouraged to note that more than 50 of you are already planning to work for feel this obligation by pursuing traditions in public interest law and public service. [cheers and applause] others have been awarded postgraduate fellowships to perform public interest work. and the two of you will soon be coming to the justice department to work with me. where are those two? [laughter] [applause] very go, all right. [cheers and applause] i have my eyes on you. in the critical days ahead, no matter how you choose to put your legal training to work, and the public sector, and private industry or in private practice, i urge you to keep up
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the habit of pro bono service that was established here at berkeley. defining challenges you have grappled with on this campus. never forget that every one of you is among the most qualified legal professionals in this country. you are among the best equipped youerve and to lead, and are among the most prepared to help a new generation rise to the challenges of the moment, bring about meaningful changes that we need, and make this world, your world, a better place. youow that each one of have that ability and that possibility within you. i implore you to make the most of it. use your unique skills, your idealism, and the power that your log agree -- your law degree now affords to better ves, to improve your communities, and to solve the complex problems that undoubtedly lie ahead. dare to question that which is accepted truth.
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strive to change that which is unjust. dedicate yourselves above all to creating a world that reflects your aspirations for a brighter future, reaching for the principles that have made our nation great, and fighting to secure and make real the promise of justice not only for your time, but for all time. as you make your way forward, know that we have faith in you. i have a great deal of faith in you. we are proud, i am proud, of each and every one of you. we are counting on this class of 2013 to make more fair and more just the world that now looks to you for the leadership that you are uniquely qualified to share. congratulations. godspeed.[cheers and applause]
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>> now a speech by the first selectwoman of newtown, connecticut. patricia llodra. she describes what the tragedy has meant to her town as she addressed graduates at sacred the universityty. is about 20 miles away from sandy hook elementary school. this is 10 minutes. [applause] >> good morning. thank you president patella for addressing me with such comments and welcoming me. i'm humbled and and greatly honored by this recognition. good morning graduates. congratulations to you for having reached this milestone in life's journey, and
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congratulations also to the moms and dads, spouses, relatives, and supporters out there who are so proud of your accomplishments. and who so wish you happiness and success as you venture forth. i've had the pleasure of sitting in the audience of the graduations of my own children and soon for my grandchildren. those events fill me with satisfaction that i have accomplished one of live schools the shepherding and parenting of those for whom i have down list love -- boundless love. i describe my self these days as an accidental politician. i never intended to have this role, never thought of myself in an elected position. i spent 30 years as a teacher, administrator, consultant with the bureau of education, and at the connecticut association of schools. for the last eight years, i have been involved in local government.
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for four years, i have worked in the town of newtown, where i lived with my family for more than 42 years. a town that i care for a great deal. a town that i believe is special in many ways. a town that loves children and families, and is proud of its schools. on december 14, 2012, a horrible tragedy into this town. we lost 20 children and six adults to a terrible, violent crime. the worst school shooting in history. that violence perpetrated upon us by an angry, confused young man, left us fragile beyond words. our sense of self, our confidence, and our surety that we are saved was destroyed in a five-minute halo bullets. that this one of that would not
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define us, that this community of newtown would be known for its courage. that we would not fall into the emotional abyss and let the violenct rob us further. that the loss of 26 innocent lives is more than we would ever want to sacrifice to hate. that we would allow the killer no more. there is a magnificent sense of resolve. it lifts the spirit and provides the strength to go on in the face of unspeakable hurt. i think it is a tool for self- preservation. it was the anchor and lifeline used by many, including me, to get through those first weeks after the event. the positive spirit was almost palpable and gatherings as we grieved together, set aside differences that we knew mattered little in the face of this new challenge. pledges of perseverance for communicated over and over again.
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i hear that same resolve and the voices of boston, and those i talk with from aurora, tucson, columbine, and blacksburg. i marvel every day at the conviction expressed by those in newtown that we will make something good from that evil act. still today, 140 days after the event, the commitment to do good though theunabated. initiatives for good differ in scope, it matters not. in fact, i am pleased and proud to witness the great diversity of effort, even if some efforts appear to diverge from the norm. the importance for me is that everyone finds their voice, and uses their talent, whatever it is, to improve the lives of the common good.
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newtown is a special place. i think that we are basically good and kind. given the choice, i believe that each of us individually and collectively would more often than not choose the good act over the evil act. i believe we do not like it at all when the balance between good and evil is tipped away from us. our security is at stake when evil gains too much ground. when that evil happens in a place like sandy hook elementary school, it brings fear to all of us. if a school known to do all the right things to ensure student and staff safety, which was known to be a loving and inclusive place, to be the site of a mass killing, then none of us are safe. i sensed right away on december 14 that the world would be watching, that what we said and did would make a difference on our community would be perceived.
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it mattered a great deal to me, and still does. i care that newtown and sandy hook are not synonymous with a horrible tragic act. the future viability of our town depends on how we are perceived by those who would become our new residents. school children, families, businessmen, shopkeepers. we are and always have been a good place. we deserve to be seen for that goodness. but how to go forward? how am i to lead this town out of chaos? the confusion and overwhelming sadness? how to do it in such a way that others watching would recognize our steely resolve to persevere mixed with a strong dose of compassion and acts of kindness. as i read and hear comments about my town, i think we have done well in this regard. there is no handbook to guide
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us, so we have had to rely upon our instincts about what is right and good. i recognize pretty quickly that i was to lead with my heart, not just with my head. my role as the town leader was to model the common confidence that we will recover, that our community will be known for its courage and dignity, it's resolve the compassion. that we will put our arms around each other in love and support for as long as it takes to restore our balance. i pray every day that i will find the courage and the wisdom needed to lead others on this journey of recovery. it helped us in newtown to know that the world was not only watching, but that they cared. the outpouring of love, hope, and prayers, was overwhelming. all corners of the world were represented in that outpouring. every country, every continent. every major government, and most minor states. messages and more than 20 languages, from churches,
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schools, families, individuals, and organizations. we learn through our experience we are one people the world over. let me leave you with just a few messages from my experience. find time in your life in your busy schedule to perform a service to others. that service is one of the greatest rewards you will experience in your adult life. service to others is restorative to the human spirit. embrace every leadership opportunity. make sure that your heart is the most active ingredient in that leadership function. engage at a personal level in social dynamics. make yourself part of a group. a community of like-minded or diverse individuals, look for that communal resolve.
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with others, make a community that cares for its members -- our future as a society will depend on those communities. let me congratulate you on this occasion. i wish you well in your endeavors. a wish for you to embrace and care for our mother earth, and all of its people. i believe that your generation possesses the answers to the questions we have today. i look forward to the future you create for my grandchildren and their grandchildren. thank you. [applause] >> tonight, some of this year's commencement addresses, from costolo, theick "new york times" nate silver, apple cofounder and ceo steve wozniak, nyse duncan
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arianna huffington, wesley bush, and former president bill clinton. today on c-span, alternatives to owning a car and traditional transportation followed by a discussion about how consumers share product and information and spend less money. and later, a look at the comprehensive immigration reform package, working its way through the senate. >> when the attorney general arranged me in california after the extradition, he indicated that he wanted the death penalty on each of the three charges. he wanted the death penalty three times. made me realize how serious they were. and again it made me realize that it was not about me because first of all, i cannot be killed three times. it was about the conception of this imaginary enemy, and i was
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the embodiment of that enemy. >> she was not that interested in talking about what happened. , theperiod -- the crime implications, being chased by the fbi, the love story, she was not that interested in talking about. she was also one of these people you do not necessarily go to directly. and i was trying to get to her directly. i figured out that there were very important people in her life, and i took the way at the people she knew and trusted. was able to get points with them, write letters, and get them involved, let them see my previous work. and slowly, she came around, and she agreed to meet. >> sailmaker -- filmmaker shola radical activist angela davis.
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>> next, alternatives to translation and car ownership. panelists include ceo's and others. posted by the commonwealth club of california, this is just over one hour. to a conversation about america's energy, economy, and environment. i am craig dalton. today, we are discussing personal mobility. a few decades ago, if you do not have a car and there was not a bus nearby, you might have to stick your thumb out on the side of the road. today, you can open a smartphone app and find a ride across town or across country. if you want to drive, you can do o in a car owned by a company or a neighbor. we will share discussions with our audience here in san francisco. we are pleased to have four people at the forefront of these innovations. car hutchinson of seo
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-- is ceo of car chairs. we also have kristen, the head of public policy. please welcome them to climate one. [applause] would like to start briefly by asking you how you got into this part of sharing economy and car sharing. you have been doing this a long time. tell us briefly how you got into this new area quite some time ago. researching car sharing for about 17 years, which seems like a long time. and i thought it made a tremendous sense i saw a bysentation about systems someone who came over from the city of bremen on a german
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scholarship. i heard his lecture and i said aha, this is my dissertation topic. i was challenged by my dissertation committee who said there is no way americans will give up their cars. i thought there might be a chance. and i never looked back. >> so you wanted to prove your dissertation committee wrong. ok. >> yes. an investor,are and you are involved in another company. tell us how you got into the sharing economy and right sharing. inactually, my story began 1997, believe it or not. i had just moved to san francisco. me and my wife had one call -- one car. one day, as i was waiting to be picked up, i had a little epiphany. had an idea i
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which was i need to get another car. but the epiphany was all these people driving by, they did not know where they were. , wearted thinking, someday will rethink transportation around this idea. i got a patent in 2002. i ran into a founder of city car share. i was on the board of city car share for several years, got involved in the university, students of mine created get around. a company we tried incubating. we decided not to pursue. we also got a law passed here in california, a.b. 1871. my interest in this category have been around for a long time. i think that right sharing, which is what sidecar does, is
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an opportunity to really expand this opportunity very rapidly around the world. >> excellent. and rick, let's ask you how you got into this space. you are nonprofit. how did you get into this space of car sharing? >> city car share was started by local activists in the late 1990's. they put cars here in 2001. we are about 12 years old. i am a uniformed banker. i made my way out here, did a couple of startups, and then ran sunil who weree doing pretty amazing things. and also around innovation and technology, so city car share had lost its director. the rest is history. it has been seven years. >> we will get more into car sharing, etc..
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kristin, have you come to the space of ridesharing and car sharing? >> i initially was outside counsel to a number of the conception companies. represented investors in companies like wheels, had started working with them ride zimride i came on board full-time about a few months ago to head up legal and public policy matters. >> great. let's set the table. susan, you have been outlining this for a long time. can you define some of the key terms and how they are changing the way people get around the world? classic carall
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sharing is fairly simple. it is the shared use of -- >> you need to put your mic on. >> oh. , they typically pay by the hour and some cases by mileage. there are a couple of new flavors that you have heard mentioned, and one is the peer to peer concept. we were also seeing a new form called one way. companies like car to go are out there, that is a daimlerchrysler, and bmw is also operating here in the city. and that is a one-way model. in another model, individuals go into and out of the same location for their access to the vehicle. with one way, you actually can
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take the vehicle from one location to another. so there is a lot of tremendous innovation happening in the car sharing cities right now. there is a lot of confusion about definitions and impacts, and it is causing some flurry of activity here. it is in san francisco. in terms of ridesharing, there are a couple of different flavors of that. it starts with the most simple, pool, a a van -- a fam family sharing a vehicle, taking children to and from school, maybe with neighbors. it also moves more into a classic car pulling situation where people are sharing a vehicle that they carpool in for work trips or regular trips. there are longer distance carpooling trips. what we are just starting to see a amount of innovation in, which sidecarsented by
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airlift, is real-time ridesharing. it is very dynamic, very instant. so what we are seeing, in my opinion, is the growth and development of the shared mobility space. we don't exactly know how it is going to shake out. we have a lot of work ahead to go in the public policy arena. >> so it has been around for a long time, the concept. taxis, supershuttle. ?hy is is all happening now is it the technology, hard economic times that is kind of making people more cost conscious? threehink there are things that have changed. i actually looked at a company like this in 1999. one, the technology was not ready. the smart phone platforms and having them be open, there actually have been smartphones opened at one time. what is changed is that you can now have access to them without , some big,ive them
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huge, company to cooperate with you. you can publish it at an itunes store and more are coming. second is there is interest on the part of everyday people in new forms of transportation. i think we have more willingness to experiment with transportation right now than at any time since before world war ii. since that time, we pretty much accepted the automobile as the wait is going to be. it was the dominant dominant technology of our europe. >> and owning that automobile. >> yeah. for the first time, because of this technology, and because of things like climate change, energy security, there was a willingness to try new things, things like electric vehicles, etc.. the third thing is if there is political will to try new things.
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tore is a political will experiment. when i wascdote -- advocating, i was sent into a republican's office because well, i should probably not say publicly the reasons why i was sent in. what a change to a insurance is handled? >> yes. the insurance companies could have easily killed this bill, i was told, with a single phone call. i was told that these republicans were, you know, very into the interest of the insurance companies. i went in, i met with a staffer, and i was prepared for all of my arguments. the first words out of my mouth were -- this is the wave of the future, insurance companies need figure it out and get on board. was an indication of ok, there is a willingness to
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try new things, there is a theingness to accept that smartphone and information technology is the wave of the future. ourre going to reorganize entire society around this bill, and transportation is one of those things. we've already done it with media, shopping, other things. stress rotation is merely the next big category to be transformed. -- transportation is merely next big category. >> in five years, your car will be your smartphone. what does that mean? does that mean self driving cars? more displays in the car? >> i know what that means for us. when we said that, we were talking about today when you want to do anything in life, whether you want food from the grocery store, you want to go a work, you want to go on date, everything is mediated by the automobile. now, everything can be mediated
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by your smartphone. you are going to be able to get the mobility you need, whether it is going grocery shopping or going on a date or getting to work. all of that is going to be possible through your smartphone. >> fascinating. let's talk about the size of this market. do we know how big this market is right now? personal mobility, car sharing, there are a lot of companies -- and do know how big it is? >> yes. this is what i do. [laughter] i check these numbers. that is why rick looked at me. interesting news -- i have not shared this publicly or in the media yet. we just did our data collections for january 2013. north america has surpassed the million mark for car sharing members. that includes mexico, which is quite small, canada, and the u.s. the u. 800,000
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members, about 820,000. >> so one million people are a member of car sharing. >> and that is a gross, right? growing. been since we started our trekking in the late 90 -- in the late 1990's, we have not seen a decline, we have seen ongoing growth. i do not think that this -- i do think that this product could scale much bigger than we have seen today, how do we look at this from a public policy standpoint to make it more possible to grow those numbers even bigger? i am very interested in the scalability now. were it used to be very interested in the scale of impact. now i am moving into scale. >> who are those people, who are those million people? people living in urban areas?
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theoes tend to be some of common demographics. i think there is a chance and opportunity to grow much beyond that through innovations in the business models and changes in the overall approach. i think everybody here on this panel represents that change. >> and then what are the impacts of that change on existing businesses -- car companies, you talk a little bit about insurance companies. are the car companies going to sell fewer cars? >> they would sell more cars if they put them into car sharing systems. we see a number of automakers who are very interested in providing these services, as i mentioned, dimer is putting smart vehicles out there, and bmw is putting vehicles out there. so i could be a service provider as well as a vehicle have carsbut folks in their reach, so there is an
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opportunity for them to develop a new core competency in the business. ultimately, there may be an impact in the total size of vehicles available. at a changinging world where people are looking more at the urban areas. . we are also seeing energy issues and climate change issues that will impact the future. i think the role of the automobile is changing as well as the role of the car rental. >> be chairman of the ford motor company was here recently and said -- car sharing is going to happen whether we like it or not. we might as well be part of it. it where you are concerned about carbon, is this alternately going to reduce the vehicle miles traveled? movingple going to be around more because it is easier to do it? >> that is an excellent question. i think there is this potential paradox as you make things more
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efficient, people tend to use them more. case ofnk that in the what we're doing, specifically with bright, there is an opportunity to reduce emissions and reduce congestion. thats to do withit has to do wy we do it. passengers must enter their destination and drivers can see what that destination is. we like to say the good of the nation requires destination. that is -- basically conveying if you can make the ride shared then you can have reductions in emissions, you can have reductions in congestion. if you can't have that kind of sharing you're not going to get those benefits. >> is this someone commuting from san francisco to the east bay? is this the daily routine? if this is someone going
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